Sunday, 23 May 2010

Hausa da Hausanci a Karni na 21 – Kalubale da Madosa

Daga Abdalla Uba Adamu (auadamu@gmail. com)
Chairman, Center for Hausa Cultural Studies, Kano



Being a paper presented at one-day sensitization meeting of Hausa Motion Arts Stakeholders on Wakilcin Al’adu da Addini a Finafinan Hausa, held on Saturday 2nd April 2005 at the Murtala Muhammad Library, and organized by the Directorate of A Daidata Sahu, Kano



Gabatarwa

A duk fadin kasar nan, babu al’ummar da ta fi ta Hausawa samun kalubale a kan salsalarta da rayuwarta. Ba wani abu ne ya janyo haka ba illa albarkar da Allah Ya yi wa Hausa da Hausanci, ya zamanto ko kaka mutum wanda ba Bahaushe ne ba ya yi gogayya da Hausawa, ya iya Hausa, to shi kam zai dauki kansa ne a matsayin Bahaushe. Wannan ya saba da yadda shi Bahaushen ya kan dauki kansa, domin komai jimawar da ya yi a wani wuri, to shi har abada a matsayin Bahaushe zai dauki kansa, ba dan mazauna wurin ba. Abin da ya janyo haka kuwa shine ganin yadda kasar Hausa ta zama dadaddiyar cibiyar ciniki tsakanin bakaken fatan Afrika na Sudan da kuma Larabawa, wanda ya sa kasar Hausa ta zama wajen zaman mutane da kabilu da yawa domin cinikayya. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna waje daya bane; daga Kano zuwa Gwanja, zuwa Salo da Kamaru da Kwango, duk babu inda Hausawa basu ratsa sun kafa sansani ba. Amma tushen su kasar Hausa domin nan suke dawowa, komai dogon zangon su. A dawowar ne suka dawowa da sababban abubuwa na dabi’u da tadodin al’ummatan da suka hadu da su, suke narkar da wadannan su zama nasu, har ma ta kai a dinga kokwanton ko a kwai Bahaushe na asali.

Sannan kuma Hausa (yaren), Hausawa (masu yaren) da kuma Hausanci (akidar masu yaren) sun samu wani babban kalubale a wannan karni na 21 da muka shigo, ba don komai ba sai don ganin yadda igiyar sauyin halayen al’umma suka shafi gundarin rayuwar Bahaushe. Wannan igiyar kuwa ta taho ne da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani wanda sukan kawo mana salo da yanayin rayuwar wadansu al’ummatai na duniya wadanda wani lokaci muka ga kamar akwai kamanceceniya a salon rayuwarsu da namu. A kokarin kwaikwayon wadannan al’ummatan ne ake samun babban kalubale a rayuwar Bahause ta zamani ta hanyar finafinai, domin wannan ita ce babbar hanyar da ake haskaka rayuwar al’ummatai kuma a`ke wakiltarsu.

Bugu da kari, nazarin Hausanci sai ya bambanata da nazarin rayuwar al’ummatai (Anthropology) ta yadda kusan kullum an fi karkata ga yaren Bahaushe, maimakon sauran fannonin na rayuwarsa. Sannan kuma ko a nazarin zamantakewarsa, an fi damuwa da haihuwa, rayuwa, mutuwa da bukukuwansa, watau tadodinsa, amma ba akidarsa, watau al’adarsa ba.

A wannan jagoran bayanin, zan yi kokarin in fayyace salsalar Bahaushe da kuma fito da gundarin akidarsa domin fahimtar yadda Bahause yake, da kuma yadda yakamata a wakilce shi ta kowacce hanya in ana son a yi masa adalci.

Bahaushe, Daga Ina Haka?


Babban abin da za a fara tambaya a nan shine, wai shin wanene Bahaushe? Wannan tambayar tana da ban mamaki domin ganin cewa babu wata kabila da ake tantamar salsalarta a Nijeriya. Misali, idan aka ce Yarabawa, an san wadanda a ke nufi. Amma da zarar ka ce Hausawa, sai a fara musu domin ana ganin yawan gaurayar al’ummatai, da kuma iya yaren Hausa na mutane da yawa ya sa bama za a iya cewa ga Bahaushe ba. Wannan tunani ya karfafu a bisa nazarin wani mai nazarin Harshe da ake kira Joseph Greenberg, wanda ya rasu a Amirka ranar 7 ga Mayu, 2001 yana dan shekara 85. A turbar nazarin da ya gina, Greenberg ya jagoranci ra’ayin cewa babu wata kabila Hausawa, domin su kansu Hausawan, a wajensu kalmar “Hausa” tana nufin yare – misali zaka ji mutum ya ce “bana jin Hausar wancan mutumin” – watau a nan, Hausa yare ce kenan.

Sannan kuma kusan kowannen Bahaushe zaka ji ya ce da kai ai shi ainihin iyayensa Fulani ne, Buzayene, Barebari ne, da dai sauransu. Amma kuma in ka tambaye shi ko yana jin wancan yaren na wadannan mutanen, sai ya ce da kai baya ji. Wannan shi ke dada dagula Hausa da Hausanci, a rasa ma wai shin wanene Bahaushen.

A wani hasashen an danganta samun kabilar Hausawa da auratayyar al’ummatai daga Afrika ta Arewa inda zaunannun wadannan wurare suka gauraya da buzaye, sannan aka samu Hausawa. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne a tsakanin 1050 da 1100.[1] Amma kuma wani manzarcin ya kalubalanci wannan hasahen inda ya ce babu wata tabbatacciyar hujja da ta nuna samun Hausawa bisa wannan auratayyar al’ummatan. A ganin wannan manazarcin, in an ce “Kasar Hausa” to ana nufin yankin da ake magana da yaren “Hausa”, ba wai wata kabila ba.[2] Sauran ra’ayin manazarta suma sun ginu ne a kan wannan ra’ayin. Ta haka, misali, Niven ya ce kalmar “Hausa” asalinta ta Buzaye ce, domin da wannan sunan suke kiran duk wanda ya fito daga arewancin kogin Kwara.[3] A wannan nazarin, Hausa kalma ce wadda Buzaye ke kiran duk bakar fatar da ke inda Larabawa ke kira Sudan . Abin mamaki, ita wannan kalmar ma tana nufin mutanen Abyssinia, watau Habasha, wanda wannan ya kawo hasashen cewa Hausawa daga Habasha suke; yanzu kam mun gane cewa kiran Hausawa da Hausa, da kuma kiran Habashawa da Hausa, duk aikin Buzaye ne.[4] Sannan kuma yin amfani da kalmar ma kaskanci ne na wariyar launin fatan da Buzaye ke yi wa duk wani baKi. Misali, tunda Hausa tana nufin Bahaushe da kuma Bahabashe, sai a ka samu wata danganta ta yadda a harshen Habashanci, “habshi” na nufin haushin kare. Saboda haka a wajen Buzayen wancan lokacin, duk wanda ke magana da wadannan yarurrikan to Bahabshi ko Bahaushe ne.[5] A takaice dai an daidata furucin Hausa da haushin kare, wanda kuma su Hausawa suna yin haka ga wadansu kabilun inda in mutum baya jin Hausa, sai su ce, “bagware ne”.

Skinner kuwa cewa yayi kalmar “Hausa” ta fito daga mutanen Songhai (inda Mali take yanzu) ne, domin sune suke kiran duk kauyukan da ke gabas da su hausa ko aussa, daga nan ne su “Hausawan” suka ari wannan kalmar suke kiran kansu da ita[6] – watau kafin wannan basu da wani suna da suke kiran kansu!

Sannan kuma manzartan tarihin kasashen Larabawa sun ziyarci kasar Hausa amma duk a rubutunsu, basu ambaci kalmar “Hausa ba” a matsayi sunan kabilun da suka hadu da su. Marubuta kamar su Leo Africanus wanda ya ziyarci kasar Hausa wajen karni daga 1513 zuwa 1515, bai ambaci mutanen da sunan Hausawa ba, sai dai ya ce “Mutanen Kano ”, “Mutanen Katsina”, da sauransu. Yarensu kuma sai ya ce suna magana da yaren “Mutanen Gobir”.

Wannan ya nuna cewa jimlar kalmar “Hausa” a matsayin nuni ga wata kabila sabon abu ne wanda bai wuce shekaru 400 ba. Amma kuma akwai daulolin Hausawa da masarautun Hausawa da ake magana da harshen Hausa fiye da shekaru 1000 da suka wuce. Idan haka ne, ashe Hausanci ba a yaren ya tsaya ba, akwai kabila wacce take da salsala. Makala suna “Hausawa” a matayin masu magana da yaren “Hausa” abu ne wanda wadansu suka yi wa Hausawan, amma basu Hausawan da kansu ba, kamar yadda Hausawa ke cewa da kabilar Igbo, “Inyamurai”, wanda kuma ba haka su Igbo suka kiran kansu ba.

Saboda haka ko da lokacin da Leo Africanus ya zo Kano , daular Kano ta yi fiye da shekaru 500 da kafuwa, kuma da Hausa ake tafiyar da ita. Ashe Hausanci ba yare ne ba, akwai kabila Hausa. A nan nafi karkata ga Muhammad Sani Ibrahim inda ya ce, Hausa suna ne da yake da ma’anar Harshe, da mutanen da suke magana da shi, da kuma kasar da ake magana da shi.[7]

Saboda haka sai mu koma tambayar farko, shin wanene Bahaushe? Amsar a nan ita ce duk wanda salsalarsa babu wani yaren iyaye sai Hausa, to shi ne Bahaushe. Idan a jerin iyaye da kakanni akwai wanda ba Bahaushe bane, to kai ma ba Bahaushe bane. Na aro wannan ma’aunin bisa cewa Hausanci kirar halitta ce, ba lafazi ba. Misali, a kasar Turawa, in a cikin iyaye da kakanninka akwai bakar fata, to ko kafi madara fari a matsayin bakar fata kake.

A wannan ma’aunin, babu maganar zama a wata al’umma da kuma sanin yarenta, domin ka zama dan wannan al’ummar (a nan, kabilar). Misali, duk iya larabcin bakar fatan da ya zauna a garin Maka, ba za a taba kiransa Balarabe ba, ba wai kawai don akwai banbancin tsakakin fatar Balarabe na aihini da bakar fata, ba, a’a, kawai ba Balarabe bane, kuma shi ma ya san haka. Haka duk iya Turancin bakar fata a Ingila ba za kira shi Ingilishi ba, sai dai dan kasar Ingila, domin Ingilishi (English) kabilace a Ingila tare da Sikotawa (Scottish), Irishawa (Irish) da kuma Welshawa (Welsh), kuma duk wadannan Turawa ne, farar fata; babu baki a cikinsu. Su kansu a Ingila din, zaka ji mutum na alfahari da kabilarsa – misali, duk da cewa shi fari ne, amma zai ce maka shi Ba’Irishe ne, ba Ingilishi ba. Saboda haka kamar Hausa, in ka ce English to ana nufin yaren da kuma Kabilar. Ta haka za a bambanta cewa “wannan mutumin British ne, amma fa dan kabilar Welshawa ne”

Bari in dawo gida. Idan, misali wani Bayarabe da matarsa suka bar kasar Yarabawa fiye da shekaru 100 da suka wuce, suka yada zango a wata unguwa a Kano suka yi zuri’a, to komai nisan zuri’ar da wadannan iyayen zuri’a, duk a Yarabawa suke. Halin zamantakewar su zai iya sa wadanda aka haifa daga baya basu ma san yaren iyayen nasu na asali ba, sai Hausa. Duk da haka, Yarabawa ne, domin salsalarsu ce. Idan dole sai an dangantasu da Hausa, to a iya kiransu abin da na kirkiro da Hausawan Zamantakewa. Amma ba Hausawa bane, domin Hausa ta wuce yare, kabila ce, tare da al’adunta na musamman, da kuma dabi’o’inta. Mutum zai iya rungumar wadannan domin ya zama Bahaushen Zamantakewa, amma ba zai zama Bahaushe ba, kamar yadda mutum zai iya karbar rayuwar Larabawa domin ya zama dan, misali, Dubai , amma ba zai taba zama Balarabe ba in ba shi ba ne.

Idan iyayen salsar sun ki su koyawa zuri’ar su yaren su domin suna son su bace su zama Hausawa (ko kuma mazaunan inda suka sami kansu), wannan ruwansu, amma wannan ba zai kankare musu Yarabancin ba. Mu danganta da cewa komai dadewar Bahaushe a Shagamu, ba zai taba tsammanin shi Bayarabe ne ba. Ta haka za a ga Hausawan Kamaru da Gana da Kwango, misali, wadansu basa jin Hausar sosai, ko kuma suna yin Hausar wata iri, amma kowanne daga cikinsu zai danganta salsalarsa da wani gari a kasar Hausa.

Wannan yana daga cikin ban mamakin albarkar da Allah ya yi wa Hausa da Hausawa – kullum wadanda ba Hausawa sai so suke a dauke su a matsayin Hausawa, duk da cewa suna da tasu kabilar – da akidodin – wacce ya kamata su daukaka.

Dabi’a, Tada (Gargajiya) da kuma Al’adar Bahaushe

Tari da yawa in an yi maganar “al’adar Bahaushe” ana maganar dabi’u da tadar Bahaushe ne. Babban abin da ke kawo wannan muhawar shine ganin yadda kusan duk nazarin da ake yi wa Hausawa, ana yi ne daga turbar harshe, ba daga turbar mu’amala da tarbiyya ba. Wannan ya saba da yadda manazartar rayuwar al’umma ke nazarin sauran al’ummatan. Kuma kasancewa masu nazarin Hausawa na farko-farko sun yi daga wannan kusurwar ta nazarin harshe, sai aka ci gaba da wannan turbar. Ina mai fatan bude wata hanyar nazarin rayuwar Bahause a bisa alkiblar nazarin rayuwar dan Adam ba kawai ta harshe ba.

Hanya ta farko ta barin waccan kusurwar nazarin ita ce bambanta dabi’ar Hausawa, tada (ko gargajiyar) Hausawa, da kuma al’adar Hausawa. Wadannan rukunayen rayuwa dole a bambantasu kamar yadda masu nazarin salsalar al’umma (Anthropologists) suke yi wa sauran al’ummatan. Domin a samu kyakkyawar fahimta, dabi’a dai ita ce, social behavior; tada ko gargajiya kuma, customs and traditions; sannan al’ada kuma mores and midsets.

A bisa wannan ma’unin, dabi’a tana nufin yanayin zaman mutum, tada da gargajiya kuma na nufin yanayin da aka gada kaka da kakanni, wanda zai iya bambanta da yanayin zaman mutum a yanzu, ko kuma halin da mutum ya samu kansa. Al’ada kuma tana nufin sinadarin mu’amalar mutum, ko kuma tarbiyyarsa. Al’ada a gaba take da dabi’a, kuma zata iya jagoranta. Idan an ce mutum ba shi da al’ada mai kyau, ana nufin bashi da tarbiyya mai kyau, domin al’adar ko tarbiyyar sune suke gina shi a kan fasalin mutumin kirki, ko kuma “dan asali”.

Za a iya aron dabi’a da ma gargajiya, amma ba za a iya aron al’ada ba, domin ita al’ada tana tattare da ruhin mai ita; bayan dabi’a kuwa ta kan canza bisa yadda yanayin zama yakama; kai har ma aron ta ake yi, amma ba za a taba aron al’ada ba. Saboda haka za iya aron abubuwan sarrafa dabi’a, a gyarasu, a canza su, in kuma an gaji da su a zubar da su. Amma ba a aron al’ada domin ita al’ada tana like ne da ruhin mai ita a matsayin sinadari.

A duk inda ake nazarin zamantakewar Bahaushe, dole sai ka ji ana ta cakuda wadanan rukunayen zaman mutum -- dabi’a, tada, da kuma al’ada. Wani lokaci in an ce al’ada, to ana nufin dabi’a; sannan kuma in an yi maganar dabi’a, saka ji lallai ba al’ada ake magana ba, ana maganar tada ne. Ya zama wajibi a bambanta kowanne da kawo bayanai da hujjoji domin su tallafawa bayanin.


Dabi’a da Zamanancin Bahaushe


Duk da na ganin kamar Bahaushe bagidaje ne, bana jin akwai kabilar da ta fi Bahaushe rungumar zamanin da ya sami kansa. Wannan ba zai zama abin mamaki ba domin kasar Hausa dadaddiyar matattara al’ummatai ce. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna ne ba, akwai su da yaron kasuwanci da fatauci. Ta haka sukan ci karo da abubuwa baki da yawa, daga yare da are-aren kalmomi, zuwa ire-iren abinci da kuma tufafi, kai har da ma sigar gine-gine. A duk lokacin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da wani abu sabo, dan-da-nan yake karbarsa, in har ya yi daidai da abin da saba da shi. Idan kuwa bai daidata sahu da rayuwarsa ba, to bijire masa yake yi, komai kyaun sa. A bisa wannan tarihi na Bahaushe, babu wanda ya fi Bahaushe karbar zamani.

Ta wannan hanyar, da yawa daga cikin abubuwan da muke amfani da su, wadanda ake ganin kamar aro ne, duk na sarrafa dabi’a ne, kuma da yawa na aron ne. Misali, Bahaushe bai san ya yi gini da kusurwa hudu ba, sai da ya hadu da Larabawa. Kafin wannan lokacin Bahaushe bai san tubali ba, a wajen Larabawan ya gani. Amma ya karbi gini da tubali, daga baya da sauyin zamani ya zo, ya ke amfani da bulo, da farko da na kasa, daga baya ya koma na siminti. Wannan canjin yana nuna canjin dabi’ar Bahause ta gini, wanda dama da aro ya fara shi.

Haka kafin haduwar Bahaushe da Larabawa, abincinsa kusan kayyadadde ne – dambu, tuwo, zogale, dan wake, da sauransu. Haduwa da Larabawa ya canza dabi’ar cin abinsa ya fara cin gurasa, alkubus, algaragis, da sauransu. Yau in ya ce ya daina cin dambu – ra’ayi ne, ba Hausanci ba, domin takan yiwu a haifi Bahaushe a kasar da babu dambu ko kuma kayan sarrafa shi, kamar a ce Australiya – shike nan kuma sai a ce ba Bahaushe bane don ba ya cin dambu?

Sannan kuma babban abin da ya kawo ake ganin kamar ma babu wata kabila Hausawa, kuma Hausanci ai yarene, ba wani abu bane illa ganin yadda tabbas kam Bahaushe na da saurin aron abubuwa. Kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to yayi ne a matsayin makami domin hulda da wadanda ya ara daga wajensu; kuma in abin bai yi masa ba, zubar da shi zai yi; in kuma ya yi masa, zai narkar da shi ya zama nasa, ta yadda ko shi kansa wanda ya bawa Bahaushe aron abin, ba zai iya gane shi ba. Amma duk abin da ya ara, abin sarrafawa ne – daga tufafi, zuwa dabarun dafa abinci, zuwa ire-iren abinci, kuma zuwa kalmomi. Duk wadannan an aro su, ana kuma amfani da su, kuma in basu dace da al’ada ba, to zubar da su ake yi ta yin Allah-wadai da su.

Babu inda Bahause ya nuna gwanintarsa ta aron abubuwa suka zama masarrafai gare shi kamar harshe. Bincike ya nuna cewa har ya zuwa 1960 kusan kashi 20 daga 100 na kalmomin Hausa da Fulanci daga Larabci suke.[8] Sannan kuma daga 1960 zuwa yanzu, an samu karin wadansu kalmomin da Bahaushe ya ara a cikin Larabci yadda abin zai kai kusan kashi 40 ko fiye daga cikin dari daga kalmomin da aka ara.

Sannan sauran yararraki sun shigo cikin Hausa sosai ta yadda Bahaushe ya ari abubuwansu ya mayar nasa. Amma kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to kamar yadda na ce, abin sarrafawa ne, ba tsarin mu’amala ba. Misalai daga cikin yararrakin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da su, sannan kuma ya ari kalmominsu sun hada da Azbinanci, Fullatanci, Barbanci, da Nufanci. Ga jadawalin da ya nuna misalai daga cikin wadannan are-aren kalmomin daga wadansu yararrakin cikin Hausa:

Jadawali na 1: Are-Aren Kalmomi a Cikin Hausa[9]



Azbinanci Fullatanci

Ayaran ayari Allah seini alasaini (pl)
takarde takarda All reini alaraini (pr)
takoba takobi Allah sabbi nane alasubbinani (h)
cokal cokali kindirmu kindirmo
kanwa kanwa bukkaro bukka
ejaq jaki burtol burtali
aurak auraki jalloru jallo
akala akala burugal burugali
azurf azurfa baff baffa
mamaki mamaki kawu kawu
ashiq ice goggo gwaggo
tindi turmi ndottijo dattijo
sabro sauro ndottaku dattaku
teku teku mura mura


Barbanci Yarbanci Nufanci
kasugu / kasuwa paki / Kwaki gulu / ungulu
tubo / turba pano / kwano gbamgba / agwagwa
sango / sango agogo / agogo kplaba / kwalba
fure / fure apoti / akwati iyelye / alele
tambari / tambari gele / gyale bente / bante
algaita / algaita fshana / ashana ganga / ganga
ganga / ganga dokita / likita
birni / birni patapata / kwata-kwata
goyi / gwani pali / kwali
yarima / yarima gangan / ganga

Shi kansa Turanci da ake ganin kamar yaren wadansu kebabbu ne, bai samu ci gaba ba sai da ya ari kalmomi da yawa daga cikin yaren al’ummatan da Turawa suke hulda da su; domin Turawa, kamar Hausawa, ba zaune suke ba, a kwai su da yawo da kuma karbar sabon abu. Misali daga cikin al’ummatan da Turawa suka ari kalmominsu domin gina Turanci na jadawali na kasa.

Jadawali na 2: Are-Aren Cikin Turanci



Turkish Egypt Arab Indian
Mammoth Pharaoh Alcohol Bungalow
Turkey Gum Hazard Dam (n)
Vampire Ebony Cable
Coach Oasis Sugar Malaysian
Kiosk Ivory Racket Amok
Girl Ammonia Mattress Ketchup
Beer Embark Magazine Launch
Book Algebra Gong
King Alcove

Saboda haka ashe aro ba wani bakon abu ne a cikin dabi’ar Bahaushe, kuma tunda aron da yake yi yana tafiya da yadda ya samu kansa, dole a yarda Bahaushe na tafiya da zamani, ba wai bagidaje ne ba. Misali, cin abinci da hannun hagu da cokali mai yatsu, dabi’ar Banasare ce. Cin abinci da tsinkaye guda biyu dabi’ar Canis ce. Duk wadannan da kyar zaka raba su da wadannan dabi’un. Amma zaman Bahaushe a Hon Kon zai iya sa ya ari dabi’ar cin abinci da tsinkaye, domin yana ganin zai iya, ko kuma yana sha’awa. Wannan ba zai sa ya zama Canis ba, amma za a iya cewa ya bar tasa dabi’ar (ta cin abinci da hannu, domin ko cin abinci da cokali ma ba dabi’ar Bahaushe ba ne, don cokalin aro shi ya yi daga wajen Azbinawa), ya ari ta Canis, domin a wannan aron, babu yadda zai nasabanta shi da rayuwarsa. Amma kuma a wani misalin, babbar riga ba tufafin Bahaushe bane, amma yanzu babu Bahaushen da zai yarda babbar riga ba tasa ba ce saboda yadda ta dace da tsarin dabi’ar rayuwarsa.

Tada ko Gargajiya da Zamanancin Bahaushe

Tada, gargajiya, ko kuma customs and practices, tsare-tsaren rayuwar Bahaushe ne da ya gada kaka da kakanni. Da Musulunci ya zo, sai ya kawar da wadansu, kamar tsafi da bautar gumaka, da shan giya da zina, da sauransu, ya kuma kyale wadansu domin basu yi karo da addini ba, kamar tsare-tsaren haihuwa da sauran bukukuwan da suka hada da haihuwa. Duk da cewa rayuwa wacce aka gada shekara da shekaru, ba dole ne mutum ya yarda da ita ba, domin akwai ra’ayi a wajen inganta tada. Misali, matan Turawa basa wankan jego. Wannan sai matan Hausawa. Amma shi ma yanayi ne da kuma ra’ayi. Bahaushiyar da ke zaune a Ingila ba zata yi wankan jego ba, domin yin haka zai keta ka’idar kiwon lafiyar dan Adam a kasar. Saboda haka idan wannan Bahaushiyar ta ce ba za ta yi wankan jego ba, ba wai ta yar da tadar ta bane, kawai yanayin zamanta ba zai kyale ta ta ci gaba da wannan tadar bane. Sannan wadansu matan basu da karfin halin da zasu dinga shekawa kansu ruwan zafi, ko saboda rashin lafiya ba zasu iya wannan wankan jegon ba. Wannan ba zai fitar da su daga rukunin Hausawa ba, domin haka abin ya dauro musu.

Duk da haka, wadannan tadodin suma an yi musu kwaskwarima, tare da hadowa da na wadansu al’ummatan, a shigar da su cikin Hausa. Misali, matar da ta yi haihuwar fari tana zuwa gidansu ta ci gaba da wankan jego daga ranar suna ne. Amma Hausawa sun ari tadar Fulani ta wannan fannin na tafiya gida goyon ciki daga ciki na wata bakwai.

Yin haka ya yi daidai, domin abin duk za a ce kana da zabi a kai, ko dabi’a, ko tada, to kana da hakkin juya shi ta yadda zaka iya aiwatar da shi ta yadda kake so, ko da ya batar da surarsa ta ainihi, to dalilin yinsa na nan. Misali, kaurin jego na daga cikin tadodin Hausawa. A surarsa ta farko da kafuwan sa ake yi, a yi ganda, sannan a hada da kunun kanwa a aikawa makwabta da abokan arziki. Da tafiya ta yi tafiya, sai wannan ya canza, a ka koma yi da naman karamar dabba, daga baya a ka koma yi dabino da kuma alewa. Sigar ta canza, amma makasudin, ko kuma manufar yin kaurin, bata canza ba.

Saboda haka in akwai wata tada ta ta sabawa Musulunci, to wannan bai kamata a daukakata ba. In kuwa bata sabawa Musulunci ba, to in dai zata amfana jama’a ta ko samar da aiki, ko karfafa zumunci, a iya daukakata, ko da an canza mata siga. A wannan, tadodin Bahaushe sun hada da tsare-tsaren rayuwarsa daga haihuwa zuwa aure, zuwa mutuwa. Kowacce kabila a duniya tana da abin da ta tanada na sarrafa wadannan nau’o’in na rayuwa.



Al’ada da Hausanci

Saboda haka da yawa daga cikin karon da a ke yi na ma’anar al’ada, ana nufin ko dabi’a, ko kuma tada. Da yawa daga masu nazarin rayuwar Bahaushe suna musayan ma’anar al’ada da kuma tada ko kuma dabi’a. Domin tunatarwa, na fassara al’ada a matsayin sindarin mu’amalar mutum, ko kuma mores and mindsets, da Turanci.

Wannan sindarin mu’amalar shi kan fitar da abin da za kira mutumin kirki, wanda kuma halayyace, ko kuma tarbiyya. A takaice, al’ada hali ne, ba sarrafi ba. Wannan ma’aunin ya fito daga hannun masana da suka nazarci rayuwar Bahause a zamanin da ake ganin babu yawan cudanya tsakanin Hausawa da wadansu hanyoyin sadarwa da za ce sun zama rariyar daukan wadannan halayen. Kuma tun kafin zuwan Musulunci, Hausawa na da wadannan halayen – da Musulunci ya zo, ya inganta su ne.

A binciken da manazarta suka yi, an gano cewa al’adar Bahause, a bisa wannan ma’aunin na ma’anar al’ada, na tattare a sinadaran mu’ala guda 21. Wadannan sun hada da:

Hausanci Fulatanci (Pulaaku)

1. Adalci 1. Ne'ddaku (Jan Aji)
2. Amana 2. Daraja
3. Dattako 3. Ardungal (Shugabanci)
4. Gaskiya 4. Marugo Na'i (Mallakar Shanu)
5. Hakuri 5. Endam (Kirki)
6. Hankali
7. Hikima
8. Juriya da jarumta
9. Kama sana’a
10.Karamci
11. Kawaici
12. Kunya/Kara
13. Ladabi
14. Mua’amala
15. Mutumci
16. Rashin tsegumi
17. Rikon addini
18. Zumunta

Wadannan ba sune kadai ba. Dole za a iya samun wadansu sinadiran; amma dai a wadannan masana kamar su Kirk-Greene[10] da kuma Zarruk[11] suka gina sinadarin al’adar Bahaushe da kuma Bafillace, tunda yanzu an zama daya. Saboda da haka a wannan ma’auni na su, al’adar Bahaushe ita ce al’adar mutumin kirki a cikin al’ummar Hausawa. Takan yiwu sauran kabilun suma suna da ire-iren wadannan, amma abin da ya fi damun mu a nan, shine yadda rayuwar Hausawa take, domin da mutum ya yi abu zaka ji an kwabe shi ana cewa, “haba, sai kace ba Bahaushe ba?” Wannan ya nuna ashe akwai ma’aunin Hausanci, ba wai kawai a tada ko dabi’a ba.

In an lura duk wadannan sinadirayen sun dogara ne a zuciyar mutum, amma suna amfani da dabi’a domin a aiwatar da su – shi yasa a ke ganin dabi’a da al’ada kamar daya ne. Misali, mutumci ne mutum ya sa tufafi masu kyau. Amma a dabi’ance, zai iya sa tufafin da suka dace da yadda ya sami kansa. Amma kuma ko da a haka ne, saka tufafin zai dogara ga shekaranusa – wanda kuma an jawo dattaku ciki. Misali, idan mutum dan shekara 50 mai sha’awar kallon wasan kwallon kafa, ya saka wandon jins da T-shat ta wani dan bal, da kuma hula hana-sallah, to gani za a yi ya karya dokokin al’adar Bahause ta hanyar zubar da mutumcinsa, da kuma rashin nuna dattaku, duk da cewa babu wata illa ga kayan da ya sa, domin sun kare tsiracinsa, sun dace da sha’awarsa ta kallon bal, kuma duk da cewa a wata alkaryar ta Musulumi (misali, Masar), za a iya samun takwararsa ya saka wadannan kayan, kuma ya samu karbuwa.

Saboda haka al’adar Bahaushe ba wai gine-ginen da ko na zamani ba ne. Ba wai iya dafa wani abincin da ko na yanzu ba ne; ba kuma saka tufafin da ko na yanzu bane. Al’adar Bahaushe yanayin hali ne wanda ya fitar da shi dabam da sauran jama’a, ya zama duk inda yake yana wakilitar duk wani mutum da za a kira Bahaushe, kuma ta wani fannin, ko da Bamaguje ne. Misali, Bahaushen da ke zaune a Ingila ba dole ne ya sa manyan kaya irin wadanda zai sa a kasar Hausa ba. Amma yana da halayyar Bahaushen da komai jimawa a kasar da yayi, za a san lallai Bahaushe ne. Saboda haka don bai sa manyan kaya ba, wannan halin zaman wurin ne ya kama haka, amma sinadarin halayensa na Bahaushe suna tare da shi, sai dai ya bijire musu, ko kuma ya dakatar da su saboda wadansu dalilai.

Bari in ba da misalina na karshe wanda yake da dangantaka da dalilin taruwarmu a yau. Babu abin da aka fi yawan sakashi a cikin kwandon da ba nasa ba kamar rawa da waka. Kusan duk mai yin magana a kan rawa da waka zaka ji ya ce ai al’adar Bahaushe ce. Ina da ja a nan. Rawa da waka ba al’adar Bahaushe ba ce, domin ba ta zama tilas a kan kowanne Bahaushe ba, sabanin halayyar al’ada, wadanda suka wajaba a kan duk wanda ke da ikirarin shi Bahaushe ne.

Idan aka bi ma’aunin gwajin al’ada, to tabbas rawa da waka ba al’dar Bahaushe bane. Hasali ma dai yinsu na runa kusan rashin duk jerin ayoyin tarbiyyar da aka gina al’adar Bahaushe da su. Rawa da waka sana’a ne, saboda haka tadodi ne. Kuma ko a sana’ance, suna da da muhallinsu; ta wani fannin ma gadonsu ake yi, ba shigege ba. Bugu da kari a rayuwar Bahaushe, mawaka da makada an dauke su a matsayin maroka. Su kansu mawakan, kamar Sani Dan Indo, suna nuna cewa basa fatan ‘ya’yansu su gaje su a wannan sana’ar ta su, duk da sun yi kudi, kuma sun yi tashe a cikinta.[12] Ganin haka ne yasa a ke nisanta al’adar Bahaushe ta tarbiyya, da rawa da waka.[13]

A wannan ruwayar, rawa da waka ba su da matsayin rayuwar yau da kullum, kamar al’ada, saboda basu zama dole ba. Akwai rayuwar da za a iya yi babu rawa da waka, kuma a zauna lafiya, domin wani ma baya sonsu ko kadan. Amma babu yadda za a yi rayuwa babu, misali, ladabi, dattaku, karamci, amana, da sauransu. Ashe saboda haka rawa da waka tunda basu zama tilas a rayuwar Bahaushe ba, ba za a kirasu al’adar Bahaushe ba.

Saboda haka in ka nuna mutum ya shiga bala’i, sai ya bigire da rawa da waka, to wannan ya keta al’adar Bahaushe, domin a al’adance, zai yi tawakkali ne. Haka kuma komai farin cikin da zai samu ga mutum, ba za kaga yaje wajen mahaifiyarsa yana yi mata rawa da waka ba; zai durkusa ne ya sanar da ita abin da rayuwarsa ke ciki, in har ta kai sai ya fada mata. Kuma komai soyayyar da mutum yake yiwa matarsa, babu yadda zaka ce al’adar Bahaushe ce ya dinga rera mata waka, ko don wa’azi ko don nishadi. Ita kanta in ya fara ma zata dauka ko ya haukace ne!

Amma a tadance, lokacin biki, suna ko wani taro, in mutum yana so, zai iya tara makada da mawaka a cashe har gari ya waye. Wannan shi ya so. Amma a sigar zaman yau da kullum, ko su kansu da sana’arsu ce rawa da waka ba haka suke yinta ba, domin su ma ba al’adarsu ba ce.

Saboda haka daukaka al’adar Bahaushe, daukaka addinin Musulunci ne, domin al’adar Bahaushe gaba dayanta na cikin Musulunci.


Wakilcin Bahaushe a Hanyoyin Sadarwa na Zamani

Bari in rufe wannan dan gajeren jawabin nawa da waigen jigon wannan taron – wakilincin al’adun Hausawa da addini a Finafinan Hausa, ko da yake masana zasu yi magana a kan wannan nan ba da dadewa ba.

Fim wata hanya ce ta haskaka al’umma a da ko kuma a yanzu. Babban makasudin yin fim shine jawo hankalin jama’a ga wadansu abubuwa da ke gudana a rayuwar zahiri, da yin kalubale ga dorewar wadannan abubuwan. A takaice, idan mutum ya ce zai yi fim, yana da niyya ya wayar da kan jama ta yadda zai isar a sakonsa ta hanyar jawo hankalinsu ga lura da muhimancin sakonninsa. Wannan shine manufar yin fim daga wadanda suka kirkiro sana’ar, ba wai manufar fim daga yadda ‘yan sana’ar na kasar Hausa suka dauka ba – domin sau da yawa a cikin hira da ake yi da ‘yan san’ar finafinan Hausa sun ce ba don fadakarwa suke yin fim ba, sai don neman kudi.[14]

Wannan babu aibu, domin in dai za a bi inganttacciyar hanya a nemi kudi, yana da kyau. Amma babban sabani a nan shi ne makasudin neman kudin. Rini, misali, shi ma sana’a ce, kamar fim. Amma babu marinin da zai ce da kai yana rini ne domin ya wakilci Hausawa. Haka ma duk makeri, ko manomi, ko mai sayar da yaduka, da sauransu. Inda fim ya bambanta, kuma a ka saka ido a kai, shine ikirarin wakilcin rayuwar wadansu mutane da a ke yi ta hanyarsa. Idan da fim bai zamanto hanyar wakiltar Hausawa ba ne, to da babu wanda zai damu da sana’ar, kamar yadda a yanzu ba zaka taba jin an yi wata bita a kan sayar da tsire ba!

Tari da yawa in ana takaddama tsakanin jama’ar gari, manazarta da ‘yan fim, kowa maganar wakilcin al’adar Hausawa yake yi. Abin da ya kawo wannan kuwa saboda kowa na fassara al’ada yadda ya fahimce ta. Ina fata daga yau an sami wani abin kalubale a kan rabe-raben da ke tsakanin dabi’a, tada, da kuma al’ada.

Babban abin da ya jawo dalilin damuwa da wakilcin Bahaushe a sigar finafinan ba wani abu bane illa ganin cewa da harshen Hausa a ke wadannan finafinan. Yin amfani da harshen Hausa ya nunawa mai kallo cewa rayuwar Hausawa a ke haskakawa, kuma a ke wakilta. Ganin haka ya sa dole masu harshen su nuna damuwarsu in su a ganinsu ba a wakilce su daidai a wani fim ba. Tari da yawa kalubalen ba ya ga dabi’a, ko canja sigar tada; yana ga al’ada, wanda ya shafi tarbiyya. Ba za a samu ci gaba ba dole sai an zauna an yarda da ma’anar al’ada ta yadda kowa zai gamsu. Abin mamakin shine sauran al’ummatan da ke haskaka rayuwarsu ta hanyar fim, kamar Yarabawa da Ibo, basu da wannan takaddarmar; hasali ma yaba musu a ke yi a kan yadda kullum a finafinansu suke daukaka tadodinsu da al’adunsu.

Kamar yadda na ce, kalubalen ba ya ga canjin dabi’a ko tada. Idan mutum ya zauna a tebur ya ci abinci, ba wai ya bar rayuwar Bahaushe bane, shi kansa a zauna a gini mai kusurwa hudu ba na Bahaushe bane, ara ya yi daga wajen Larabawa. Idan Bahaushe ya ci cek a fim ba wai ya nuna Turanci ba ne, ai yana da gireba, wacce ita ma cek ce, amma daga wajen Larabawa ya aro, sai dai kawai a ce yin amfani da girebar ya fi a yi amfani da cek din, domin a inganta ita girebar, tun ma ba ga wadanda basu santa ba.

Idan an ce babban mutum a fim bai sa babbar riga ba, ai wannan ba aibu bane, ita kanta babbar rigar ba ta Bauhaushe ba ce, aro ta a ka yi daga wajen mutanen kasar da yanzu a ke kira Western Sahara (wani yanayi na Buzaye). Idan an ce Bahaushe na cin abinci da cokali, wannan ba wani abu bane; da da hannu yake cin abinci, da ya samu cokali daga wajen Azbinawa ya ga ya fi tsabta ya ci abinsa da wannan cokalin. Kazalika nuna mutane a manyan motoci ba wai nuna bijirewar Bahaushe bane – da jaki da mota duk daya ne a rayuwar Bahaushe domin duk abubuwar hawa ne da aka aro su, amfani da kowanne ya danganta ga tatttalin arzikin mutum.

Duk wadannan ba sune tushen kalubalen wakilcin al’adar Bahaushe ba. Bari mu ga wadansu misalan keta wakilcin al’adar Bahaushe bisa wannan ma’aunin. Misali, mutum ya mari sarikinsa. A wannan babu ladabi, biyayya, kara, karamci, dattaku, ko da kuwa shi sirikin shi ya jawo a mare shi. Keta al’ada ne ‘ya ta ce da mahaifinta, “kayi kukan jini ma”, saboda an nuna rashin ladabi. Keta al’ada ne a nuna mutum da iyayensa suna zaune duk a kujera, sabanin shi ya zauna a kasa, domin in ya yi sahu da su ba a lokacin sallah ba, to ya nuna rashin ladabin Bahaushe. Idan a ka nuna basarake da rawaninsa yana rawa a cikin mata, wannan ya keta al’adar Bahaushe, domin ya nuna wannan basaraken ya zubar da mutuncinsa, ko da yana haka a cikin gidansa tsakanin shi da matansa, wannan ba haka yake a cikin jama’ar da sarautarsa ke wakilta ba.

A wannan babu maganar wani zamani, ci gaba, rage duhun kai na Bahaushe da sauransu domin wai a canja al’adar Bahaushe a zamanantar da shi. Rashin nuna kyakkyawar tarbiyar basa daga cikin al’adar Bahaushe. Za a iya nuna rashin al’ada a gidan kara (wanda shine orijina na Bahaushe), sannan kuma a nuna tsabagen al’ada a katafaren gidan zamani. Saboda haka keta al’ada ko kuma nuna al’ada bai tsaya ga gine-gine, abinci, tufafi, motoci, kayan zamani da sauransu ba. Inganta sinadarin mu’amala na tarbiyya shine al’ada. In a fim a inganta wadannan, to an wakili Hausa da Musulunci. In kuwa ba a yi ta, to a wakilci Hausa da Musulunci ba. A wannan ne babban kalubalen ke gaban mu – yadda za a kiyaye al’adun da muke tinkaho da su a zamanance.

[1] H.A.S. Johnson, The Fulani Empire of Sokoto, London , 1967, p. 4-6. Sannan kuma a duba Abdullahi Mahdi, The Hausa Factor in West African History. ABU Press, 1978.

[2] Abdullahi Smith, “Some consideration relating to the formation of States in Hausa-land”. Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria , Vol V No 1, December 1970, p. 331.

[3] G.R. Niven, A Short History of Nigeria . Longman , Nigeria , 1971, p. 39.

[4] H. R. Palmer, Sudanese Memoirs, London , Frank Cass, 1928, p. 95.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Neil S. Skinner, “The Origin of the name Hausa”, Africa , 1968,Vol XXXVII, No 3, p. 256.

[7] Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, Dangantakar Al’ada da Addini: Tasirin Musulunci Kan Rayuwar Hausawa Ta Gargajya. M.A. Thesis, Department of Nigerian Languages, April 1982, p. 94.

[8] Aliyu Abubakar, Al Thakafatul Arabiyyati Fi Naijiriya: Min Aam 1750 ilaa 1960. Arabic Literature in Nigeria : From 1750 to 1960. PhD thesis, ABU Zaria, 1972. pp 371-469; wanda a ka sarrafa a mtsayin Aliyu Abubakar, The Arabic Culture in Nigeria, Beirut, Lebanon, AbdulHafiz Al-Bassid, 1972.

[9] Domin karin bayani, a duba Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, “Are-aren kalmomi cikin Hausa”, in Yahaya, I.Y. and Rufa’i, A. (eds) Studies in Hausa Language, Literature and Culture, The First Hausa International Conference. Center for the Study of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University , Kano , 1978, pp 94-116; Neil Skinner, “Loans in Hausa and Pre-Hausa: Some Etymologies” Berliner Afrikanistische Vortrage 21 (1980) 169-202; Joseph Greenberg, “Linguistic Evidence for the Influence of Kanuri on the Hausa”, Journal of African History 1:2 (1960).

[10] Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. Mutumin Kirki: The Concept of the Good Man in Hausa. The Third Annual Hans Wolff Memorial Lecture, prepared by the African Studies Program, Indian university, Bloomington, Indiana, 1974. The lecture itself was delivered on April 11 1973.

[11] Habib Alhassan, Usman Ibrahim Musa, Rabi’u Mohammed Zarruk, Zaman Hausawa. Kano , Islamic Publications Bureau, 1982, 1988.

[12] Duba hira da a ka yi da Sani Dan Indo, mai kidan kuntigi, a cikin, Annur, Vol 1, August 2001, shafi na 48.

[13] Don samun karin bayani a kan matsayin maroka a kasar Hausa kafin ‘yanci daga mulkin mallaka na Turawan Ingila, a dubi makalar M.G. Smith, “The Social Functions and Meaning of hausa Praise-Singing”, a Africa , Vol 27, 1957, shafuka na 26-44.

[14] Misali, a dubi hirar da a ka yi da Najja’atu Abubakar, ‘yar jihar Kogi, tauraruwar fim din Zabari, a mujallar FIM, Afrilu, 2005, shafi na 17, “ Neman kudi na zo, ba fadakarwa ba”.

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