Sunday, 30 May 2010

Where is the Democracy?

Democracy Day is today, May 29. When the then President Olusegun Obasanjo created the day, there was euphoria in the air. Nigerians were glad to have civil rule in place. Quite understandably, expectations were high. After a long continuum of military rule, they hoped to have a say in who governed them - and how. With the people's representatives in executive positions and in the various parliaments, they looked forward to a better society, a better life. So Obasanjo's order that May 29 should be commemorated every year as the day on which Nigerians should ruminate solemnly on the civil governance couldn't have been faulted.

Ten years down the line, however, the question that arises is whether we have had our hope, our aspiration, our expectations realised. Your guess is as good as mine. A few days ago, the government advised us to mark this milestone in quietude and not to shout it on the rooftops. The government's spokesman added, probably for those who wish to exercise their democratic right in any extent possible, that if you still wish to scream about this day, you may well do so. It is your constitutional right. But he did not give reason why the "celebration" should be low-key. Yes, the nation has lost its leader recently. For many, the mourning is still ongoing, and for many others it is forever. But that is not the real reason for the government's saying that Democracy Day should be witnessed with a solemn restraint. There is really nothing to celebrate.

In answering the question whether we have harvested our dreams of democracy, we should begin by asking ourselves the purpose of democracy. For me, the whole purpose of democracy is that leaders should deliver on the promises they made when they begged us for votes. We did not give them power so that they could become more comfortable through lining their pockets or buying landed property. They are there in order to make us more comfortable.

But the reverse is the case in this country. As poverty and want increase manifold among the mass of the people, those in executive positions and in the parliaments become increasingly more comfortable. There is not much to show in terms of improvement in the life of the common man. The state of infrastructure in the country is appalling in spite of the mouth-watering contracts governments at local, state and federal levels dish out all the time. Unemployment has become the byword for school graduation. Health facilities are nearly absent as public hospitals continue to play their old role of consulting clinics. Any Nigerian who wants qualitative medical care has to seek it abroad. But how many Nigerians have the wherewithal to embark on medical tourism in Egypt, India, Europe or the United States?

Insecurity has more than doubled since 1999. Thousands of Nigerians have died in the hands of brigands and assassins, as well as in sectarian violence. Electricity supply is still a far cry from the promised goal. Promises made by our leaders to tackle other issues requisite for qualitative living - food, education, good roads, housing, human rights, etc. - are yet to be delivered. Why? Because the leaders would rather make themselves more comfortable than discharge their responsibilities to the electorate. Just this week a debate broke out over an alleged attempt by members of the House of Representatives to have their quarterly allowances upped from N27.2 million to N42 million each. Though the increase would have been illegal, one wouldn't be surprised if the idea was mooted by the honourables in order to test its acceptability by the public. A House that is yet to prove its positive impact on the lives of the people that made it possible for each member to be there is more interested, as many instances in the past showed, in mining more funds for personal aggrandisement. In Nigeria, nothing is impossible.

Up there in the executive rooms, the story is quite similar. Their excellencies have immersed themselves in the task of playing the power game. Consequently, the fabled 7-Point Agenda has remained a mirage, a refrain that political appointees chant anytime they have an opportunity to do so, which is all the time. The game of power, which involves playing the chess of who becomes what, where and how, appears to have more attraction to the leaders. Playing this game has ensured that not a single item on the 7-Point Agenda has been achieved in three years. Even the one that some apologists cited in the wake of President Yar'Adua's death, i.e., amnesty for militants in the Niger Delta, is neither here nor there. What Yar'Adua promised on his agenda was not an amnesty but a frontal solution to the problems of the oil-producing region, which included the environmental impacts of oil exploration and improvement in the life of the Niger Deltans. Nothing of the sort has been done. Exploration and pollution, which are twinned in the hapless region, continue unabated.

What we are seeing is the politics of appeasement for criminal elements who took arms against their fatherland. As long as the boys are kept quiet through the monetary inducement called rehabilitation, the main problems would subsist. At the end of the day, the gargantuan failure of 7-Point Agenda in relation to the Niger Delta would manifest in renewed militancy, kidnapping, robbery and other atrocities.

President Goodluck Jonathan has the onerous task of redeeming the image of the Yar'Adua/Jonathan regime. Sticking to the 7-Point Agenda as initiated in 2007 is a bad idea that should be jettisoned immediately. A piece of advice given by Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi last year, on the verge of his appointment as governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, should be revisited with all seriousness. What Sanusi said was that the government had better concentrate on just two or three points of the agenda. Seven points were unwieldy, he argued.

Recently, I was in a forum where a top federal government official said that the then Acting President Jonathan had elected to address just three problems bedevilling the nation: the Niger Delta question, power and security. It was a few weeks before Yar'Adua died. With the demise of Yar'Adua, Jonathan, with a bigger mandate as president, has an opportunity to commit himself to those three items. Disappointingly, however, on Wednesday this week the Federal Executive Council came up with the funny disclaimer that it was going to do away with the 7-Point Agenda. We should, therefore, expect to see no change in government policy in the next one year. Our ears are going to continue to receive the annoying cacophony of the unwieldy agenda that has since become a quasi religion under Yar'Adua and Jonathan. Remember that it is the failure of this agenda that questions the faith of Nigerians in the ability of government to deliver the dividends of democracy. And remember that Jonathan has "not enough time," as his defenders now tell us, to do much before the general elections. As such, it is quite plausible that the gains of democracy will continue to elude us, just as we are required to observe Democracy Day year after year.

* Published on the back page of LEADERSHIP, on Saturday, May 29, 2010

Sunday, 23 May 2010

Hausa da Hausanci a Karni na 21 – Kalubale da Madosa

Daga Abdalla Uba Adamu (auadamu@gmail. com)
Chairman, Center for Hausa Cultural Studies, Kano

Being a paper presented at one-day sensitization meeting of Hausa Motion Arts Stakeholders on Wakilcin Al’adu da Addini a Finafinan Hausa, held on Saturday 2nd April 2005 at the Murtala Muhammad Library, and organized by the Directorate of A Daidata Sahu, Kano


A duk fadin kasar nan, babu al’ummar da ta fi ta Hausawa samun kalubale a kan salsalarta da rayuwarta. Ba wani abu ne ya janyo haka ba illa albarkar da Allah Ya yi wa Hausa da Hausanci, ya zamanto ko kaka mutum wanda ba Bahaushe ne ba ya yi gogayya da Hausawa, ya iya Hausa, to shi kam zai dauki kansa ne a matsayin Bahaushe. Wannan ya saba da yadda shi Bahaushen ya kan dauki kansa, domin komai jimawar da ya yi a wani wuri, to shi har abada a matsayin Bahaushe zai dauki kansa, ba dan mazauna wurin ba. Abin da ya janyo haka kuwa shine ganin yadda kasar Hausa ta zama dadaddiyar cibiyar ciniki tsakanin bakaken fatan Afrika na Sudan da kuma Larabawa, wanda ya sa kasar Hausa ta zama wajen zaman mutane da kabilu da yawa domin cinikayya. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna waje daya bane; daga Kano zuwa Gwanja, zuwa Salo da Kamaru da Kwango, duk babu inda Hausawa basu ratsa sun kafa sansani ba. Amma tushen su kasar Hausa domin nan suke dawowa, komai dogon zangon su. A dawowar ne suka dawowa da sababban abubuwa na dabi’u da tadodin al’ummatan da suka hadu da su, suke narkar da wadannan su zama nasu, har ma ta kai a dinga kokwanton ko a kwai Bahaushe na asali.

Sannan kuma Hausa (yaren), Hausawa (masu yaren) da kuma Hausanci (akidar masu yaren) sun samu wani babban kalubale a wannan karni na 21 da muka shigo, ba don komai ba sai don ganin yadda igiyar sauyin halayen al’umma suka shafi gundarin rayuwar Bahaushe. Wannan igiyar kuwa ta taho ne da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani wanda sukan kawo mana salo da yanayin rayuwar wadansu al’ummatai na duniya wadanda wani lokaci muka ga kamar akwai kamanceceniya a salon rayuwarsu da namu. A kokarin kwaikwayon wadannan al’ummatan ne ake samun babban kalubale a rayuwar Bahause ta zamani ta hanyar finafinai, domin wannan ita ce babbar hanyar da ake haskaka rayuwar al’ummatai kuma a`ke wakiltarsu.

Bugu da kari, nazarin Hausanci sai ya bambanata da nazarin rayuwar al’ummatai (Anthropology) ta yadda kusan kullum an fi karkata ga yaren Bahaushe, maimakon sauran fannonin na rayuwarsa. Sannan kuma ko a nazarin zamantakewarsa, an fi damuwa da haihuwa, rayuwa, mutuwa da bukukuwansa, watau tadodinsa, amma ba akidarsa, watau al’adarsa ba.

A wannan jagoran bayanin, zan yi kokarin in fayyace salsalar Bahaushe da kuma fito da gundarin akidarsa domin fahimtar yadda Bahause yake, da kuma yadda yakamata a wakilce shi ta kowacce hanya in ana son a yi masa adalci.

Bahaushe, Daga Ina Haka?

Babban abin da za a fara tambaya a nan shine, wai shin wanene Bahaushe? Wannan tambayar tana da ban mamaki domin ganin cewa babu wata kabila da ake tantamar salsalarta a Nijeriya. Misali, idan aka ce Yarabawa, an san wadanda a ke nufi. Amma da zarar ka ce Hausawa, sai a fara musu domin ana ganin yawan gaurayar al’ummatai, da kuma iya yaren Hausa na mutane da yawa ya sa bama za a iya cewa ga Bahaushe ba. Wannan tunani ya karfafu a bisa nazarin wani mai nazarin Harshe da ake kira Joseph Greenberg, wanda ya rasu a Amirka ranar 7 ga Mayu, 2001 yana dan shekara 85. A turbar nazarin da ya gina, Greenberg ya jagoranci ra’ayin cewa babu wata kabila Hausawa, domin su kansu Hausawan, a wajensu kalmar “Hausa” tana nufin yare – misali zaka ji mutum ya ce “bana jin Hausar wancan mutumin” – watau a nan, Hausa yare ce kenan.

Sannan kuma kusan kowannen Bahaushe zaka ji ya ce da kai ai shi ainihin iyayensa Fulani ne, Buzayene, Barebari ne, da dai sauransu. Amma kuma in ka tambaye shi ko yana jin wancan yaren na wadannan mutanen, sai ya ce da kai baya ji. Wannan shi ke dada dagula Hausa da Hausanci, a rasa ma wai shin wanene Bahaushen.

A wani hasashen an danganta samun kabilar Hausawa da auratayyar al’ummatai daga Afrika ta Arewa inda zaunannun wadannan wurare suka gauraya da buzaye, sannan aka samu Hausawa. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne a tsakanin 1050 da 1100.[1] Amma kuma wani manzarcin ya kalubalanci wannan hasahen inda ya ce babu wata tabbatacciyar hujja da ta nuna samun Hausawa bisa wannan auratayyar al’ummatan. A ganin wannan manazarcin, in an ce “Kasar Hausa” to ana nufin yankin da ake magana da yaren “Hausa”, ba wai wata kabila ba.[2] Sauran ra’ayin manazarta suma sun ginu ne a kan wannan ra’ayin. Ta haka, misali, Niven ya ce kalmar “Hausa” asalinta ta Buzaye ce, domin da wannan sunan suke kiran duk wanda ya fito daga arewancin kogin Kwara.[3] A wannan nazarin, Hausa kalma ce wadda Buzaye ke kiran duk bakar fatar da ke inda Larabawa ke kira Sudan . Abin mamaki, ita wannan kalmar ma tana nufin mutanen Abyssinia, watau Habasha, wanda wannan ya kawo hasashen cewa Hausawa daga Habasha suke; yanzu kam mun gane cewa kiran Hausawa da Hausa, da kuma kiran Habashawa da Hausa, duk aikin Buzaye ne.[4] Sannan kuma yin amfani da kalmar ma kaskanci ne na wariyar launin fatan da Buzaye ke yi wa duk wani baKi. Misali, tunda Hausa tana nufin Bahaushe da kuma Bahabashe, sai a ka samu wata danganta ta yadda a harshen Habashanci, “habshi” na nufin haushin kare. Saboda haka a wajen Buzayen wancan lokacin, duk wanda ke magana da wadannan yarurrikan to Bahabshi ko Bahaushe ne.[5] A takaice dai an daidata furucin Hausa da haushin kare, wanda kuma su Hausawa suna yin haka ga wadansu kabilun inda in mutum baya jin Hausa, sai su ce, “bagware ne”.

Skinner kuwa cewa yayi kalmar “Hausa” ta fito daga mutanen Songhai (inda Mali take yanzu) ne, domin sune suke kiran duk kauyukan da ke gabas da su hausa ko aussa, daga nan ne su “Hausawan” suka ari wannan kalmar suke kiran kansu da ita[6] – watau kafin wannan basu da wani suna da suke kiran kansu!

Sannan kuma manzartan tarihin kasashen Larabawa sun ziyarci kasar Hausa amma duk a rubutunsu, basu ambaci kalmar “Hausa ba” a matsayi sunan kabilun da suka hadu da su. Marubuta kamar su Leo Africanus wanda ya ziyarci kasar Hausa wajen karni daga 1513 zuwa 1515, bai ambaci mutanen da sunan Hausawa ba, sai dai ya ce “Mutanen Kano ”, “Mutanen Katsina”, da sauransu. Yarensu kuma sai ya ce suna magana da yaren “Mutanen Gobir”.

Wannan ya nuna cewa jimlar kalmar “Hausa” a matsayin nuni ga wata kabila sabon abu ne wanda bai wuce shekaru 400 ba. Amma kuma akwai daulolin Hausawa da masarautun Hausawa da ake magana da harshen Hausa fiye da shekaru 1000 da suka wuce. Idan haka ne, ashe Hausanci ba a yaren ya tsaya ba, akwai kabila wacce take da salsala. Makala suna “Hausawa” a matayin masu magana da yaren “Hausa” abu ne wanda wadansu suka yi wa Hausawan, amma basu Hausawan da kansu ba, kamar yadda Hausawa ke cewa da kabilar Igbo, “Inyamurai”, wanda kuma ba haka su Igbo suka kiran kansu ba.

Saboda haka ko da lokacin da Leo Africanus ya zo Kano , daular Kano ta yi fiye da shekaru 500 da kafuwa, kuma da Hausa ake tafiyar da ita. Ashe Hausanci ba yare ne ba, akwai kabila Hausa. A nan nafi karkata ga Muhammad Sani Ibrahim inda ya ce, Hausa suna ne da yake da ma’anar Harshe, da mutanen da suke magana da shi, da kuma kasar da ake magana da shi.[7]

Saboda haka sai mu koma tambayar farko, shin wanene Bahaushe? Amsar a nan ita ce duk wanda salsalarsa babu wani yaren iyaye sai Hausa, to shi ne Bahaushe. Idan a jerin iyaye da kakanni akwai wanda ba Bahaushe bane, to kai ma ba Bahaushe bane. Na aro wannan ma’aunin bisa cewa Hausanci kirar halitta ce, ba lafazi ba. Misali, a kasar Turawa, in a cikin iyaye da kakanninka akwai bakar fata, to ko kafi madara fari a matsayin bakar fata kake.

A wannan ma’aunin, babu maganar zama a wata al’umma da kuma sanin yarenta, domin ka zama dan wannan al’ummar (a nan, kabilar). Misali, duk iya larabcin bakar fatan da ya zauna a garin Maka, ba za a taba kiransa Balarabe ba, ba wai kawai don akwai banbancin tsakakin fatar Balarabe na aihini da bakar fata, ba, a’a, kawai ba Balarabe bane, kuma shi ma ya san haka. Haka duk iya Turancin bakar fata a Ingila ba za kira shi Ingilishi ba, sai dai dan kasar Ingila, domin Ingilishi (English) kabilace a Ingila tare da Sikotawa (Scottish), Irishawa (Irish) da kuma Welshawa (Welsh), kuma duk wadannan Turawa ne, farar fata; babu baki a cikinsu. Su kansu a Ingila din, zaka ji mutum na alfahari da kabilarsa – misali, duk da cewa shi fari ne, amma zai ce maka shi Ba’Irishe ne, ba Ingilishi ba. Saboda haka kamar Hausa, in ka ce English to ana nufin yaren da kuma Kabilar. Ta haka za a bambanta cewa “wannan mutumin British ne, amma fa dan kabilar Welshawa ne”

Bari in dawo gida. Idan, misali wani Bayarabe da matarsa suka bar kasar Yarabawa fiye da shekaru 100 da suka wuce, suka yada zango a wata unguwa a Kano suka yi zuri’a, to komai nisan zuri’ar da wadannan iyayen zuri’a, duk a Yarabawa suke. Halin zamantakewar su zai iya sa wadanda aka haifa daga baya basu ma san yaren iyayen nasu na asali ba, sai Hausa. Duk da haka, Yarabawa ne, domin salsalarsu ce. Idan dole sai an dangantasu da Hausa, to a iya kiransu abin da na kirkiro da Hausawan Zamantakewa. Amma ba Hausawa bane, domin Hausa ta wuce yare, kabila ce, tare da al’adunta na musamman, da kuma dabi’o’inta. Mutum zai iya rungumar wadannan domin ya zama Bahaushen Zamantakewa, amma ba zai zama Bahaushe ba, kamar yadda mutum zai iya karbar rayuwar Larabawa domin ya zama dan, misali, Dubai , amma ba zai taba zama Balarabe ba in ba shi ba ne.

Idan iyayen salsar sun ki su koyawa zuri’ar su yaren su domin suna son su bace su zama Hausawa (ko kuma mazaunan inda suka sami kansu), wannan ruwansu, amma wannan ba zai kankare musu Yarabancin ba. Mu danganta da cewa komai dadewar Bahaushe a Shagamu, ba zai taba tsammanin shi Bayarabe ne ba. Ta haka za a ga Hausawan Kamaru da Gana da Kwango, misali, wadansu basa jin Hausar sosai, ko kuma suna yin Hausar wata iri, amma kowanne daga cikinsu zai danganta salsalarsa da wani gari a kasar Hausa.

Wannan yana daga cikin ban mamakin albarkar da Allah ya yi wa Hausa da Hausawa – kullum wadanda ba Hausawa sai so suke a dauke su a matsayin Hausawa, duk da cewa suna da tasu kabilar – da akidodin – wacce ya kamata su daukaka.

Dabi’a, Tada (Gargajiya) da kuma Al’adar Bahaushe

Tari da yawa in an yi maganar “al’adar Bahaushe” ana maganar dabi’u da tadar Bahaushe ne. Babban abin da ke kawo wannan muhawar shine ganin yadda kusan duk nazarin da ake yi wa Hausawa, ana yi ne daga turbar harshe, ba daga turbar mu’amala da tarbiyya ba. Wannan ya saba da yadda manazartar rayuwar al’umma ke nazarin sauran al’ummatan. Kuma kasancewa masu nazarin Hausawa na farko-farko sun yi daga wannan kusurwar ta nazarin harshe, sai aka ci gaba da wannan turbar. Ina mai fatan bude wata hanyar nazarin rayuwar Bahause a bisa alkiblar nazarin rayuwar dan Adam ba kawai ta harshe ba.

Hanya ta farko ta barin waccan kusurwar nazarin ita ce bambanta dabi’ar Hausawa, tada (ko gargajiyar) Hausawa, da kuma al’adar Hausawa. Wadannan rukunayen rayuwa dole a bambantasu kamar yadda masu nazarin salsalar al’umma (Anthropologists) suke yi wa sauran al’ummatan. Domin a samu kyakkyawar fahimta, dabi’a dai ita ce, social behavior; tada ko gargajiya kuma, customs and traditions; sannan al’ada kuma mores and midsets.

A bisa wannan ma’unin, dabi’a tana nufin yanayin zaman mutum, tada da gargajiya kuma na nufin yanayin da aka gada kaka da kakanni, wanda zai iya bambanta da yanayin zaman mutum a yanzu, ko kuma halin da mutum ya samu kansa. Al’ada kuma tana nufin sinadarin mu’amalar mutum, ko kuma tarbiyyarsa. Al’ada a gaba take da dabi’a, kuma zata iya jagoranta. Idan an ce mutum ba shi da al’ada mai kyau, ana nufin bashi da tarbiyya mai kyau, domin al’adar ko tarbiyyar sune suke gina shi a kan fasalin mutumin kirki, ko kuma “dan asali”.

Za a iya aron dabi’a da ma gargajiya, amma ba za a iya aron al’ada ba, domin ita al’ada tana tattare da ruhin mai ita; bayan dabi’a kuwa ta kan canza bisa yadda yanayin zama yakama; kai har ma aron ta ake yi, amma ba za a taba aron al’ada ba. Saboda haka za iya aron abubuwan sarrafa dabi’a, a gyarasu, a canza su, in kuma an gaji da su a zubar da su. Amma ba a aron al’ada domin ita al’ada tana like ne da ruhin mai ita a matsayin sinadari.

A duk inda ake nazarin zamantakewar Bahaushe, dole sai ka ji ana ta cakuda wadanan rukunayen zaman mutum -- dabi’a, tada, da kuma al’ada. Wani lokaci in an ce al’ada, to ana nufin dabi’a; sannan kuma in an yi maganar dabi’a, saka ji lallai ba al’ada ake magana ba, ana maganar tada ne. Ya zama wajibi a bambanta kowanne da kawo bayanai da hujjoji domin su tallafawa bayanin.

Dabi’a da Zamanancin Bahaushe

Duk da na ganin kamar Bahaushe bagidaje ne, bana jin akwai kabilar da ta fi Bahaushe rungumar zamanin da ya sami kansa. Wannan ba zai zama abin mamaki ba domin kasar Hausa dadaddiyar matattara al’ummatai ce. Su kansu Hausawan ba mazauna ne ba, akwai su da yaron kasuwanci da fatauci. Ta haka sukan ci karo da abubuwa baki da yawa, daga yare da are-aren kalmomi, zuwa ire-iren abinci da kuma tufafi, kai har da ma sigar gine-gine. A duk lokacin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da wani abu sabo, dan-da-nan yake karbarsa, in har ya yi daidai da abin da saba da shi. Idan kuwa bai daidata sahu da rayuwarsa ba, to bijire masa yake yi, komai kyaun sa. A bisa wannan tarihi na Bahaushe, babu wanda ya fi Bahaushe karbar zamani.

Ta wannan hanyar, da yawa daga cikin abubuwan da muke amfani da su, wadanda ake ganin kamar aro ne, duk na sarrafa dabi’a ne, kuma da yawa na aron ne. Misali, Bahaushe bai san ya yi gini da kusurwa hudu ba, sai da ya hadu da Larabawa. Kafin wannan lokacin Bahaushe bai san tubali ba, a wajen Larabawan ya gani. Amma ya karbi gini da tubali, daga baya da sauyin zamani ya zo, ya ke amfani da bulo, da farko da na kasa, daga baya ya koma na siminti. Wannan canjin yana nuna canjin dabi’ar Bahause ta gini, wanda dama da aro ya fara shi.

Haka kafin haduwar Bahaushe da Larabawa, abincinsa kusan kayyadadde ne – dambu, tuwo, zogale, dan wake, da sauransu. Haduwa da Larabawa ya canza dabi’ar cin abinsa ya fara cin gurasa, alkubus, algaragis, da sauransu. Yau in ya ce ya daina cin dambu – ra’ayi ne, ba Hausanci ba, domin takan yiwu a haifi Bahaushe a kasar da babu dambu ko kuma kayan sarrafa shi, kamar a ce Australiya – shike nan kuma sai a ce ba Bahaushe bane don ba ya cin dambu?

Sannan kuma babban abin da ya kawo ake ganin kamar ma babu wata kabila Hausawa, kuma Hausanci ai yarene, ba wani abu bane illa ganin yadda tabbas kam Bahaushe na da saurin aron abubuwa. Kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to yayi ne a matsayin makami domin hulda da wadanda ya ara daga wajensu; kuma in abin bai yi masa ba, zubar da shi zai yi; in kuma ya yi masa, zai narkar da shi ya zama nasa, ta yadda ko shi kansa wanda ya bawa Bahaushe aron abin, ba zai iya gane shi ba. Amma duk abin da ya ara, abin sarrafawa ne – daga tufafi, zuwa dabarun dafa abinci, zuwa ire-iren abinci, kuma zuwa kalmomi. Duk wadannan an aro su, ana kuma amfani da su, kuma in basu dace da al’ada ba, to zubar da su ake yi ta yin Allah-wadai da su.

Babu inda Bahause ya nuna gwanintarsa ta aron abubuwa suka zama masarrafai gare shi kamar harshe. Bincike ya nuna cewa har ya zuwa 1960 kusan kashi 20 daga 100 na kalmomin Hausa da Fulanci daga Larabci suke.[8] Sannan kuma daga 1960 zuwa yanzu, an samu karin wadansu kalmomin da Bahaushe ya ara a cikin Larabci yadda abin zai kai kusan kashi 40 ko fiye daga cikin dari daga kalmomin da aka ara.

Sannan sauran yararraki sun shigo cikin Hausa sosai ta yadda Bahaushe ya ari abubuwansu ya mayar nasa. Amma kusan duk abin da aka ga Bahaushe ya ara, to kamar yadda na ce, abin sarrafawa ne, ba tsarin mu’amala ba. Misalai daga cikin yararrakin da Bahaushe ya ci karo da su, sannan kuma ya ari kalmominsu sun hada da Azbinanci, Fullatanci, Barbanci, da Nufanci. Ga jadawalin da ya nuna misalai daga cikin wadannan are-aren kalmomin daga wadansu yararrakin cikin Hausa:

Jadawali na 1: Are-Aren Kalmomi a Cikin Hausa[9]

Azbinanci Fullatanci

Ayaran ayari Allah seini alasaini (pl)
takarde takarda All reini alaraini (pr)
takoba takobi Allah sabbi nane alasubbinani (h)
cokal cokali kindirmu kindirmo
kanwa kanwa bukkaro bukka
ejaq jaki burtol burtali
aurak auraki jalloru jallo
akala akala burugal burugali
azurf azurfa baff baffa
mamaki mamaki kawu kawu
ashiq ice goggo gwaggo
tindi turmi ndottijo dattijo
sabro sauro ndottaku dattaku
teku teku mura mura

Barbanci Yarbanci Nufanci
kasugu / kasuwa paki / Kwaki gulu / ungulu
tubo / turba pano / kwano gbamgba / agwagwa
sango / sango agogo / agogo kplaba / kwalba
fure / fure apoti / akwati iyelye / alele
tambari / tambari gele / gyale bente / bante
algaita / algaita fshana / ashana ganga / ganga
ganga / ganga dokita / likita
birni / birni patapata / kwata-kwata
goyi / gwani pali / kwali
yarima / yarima gangan / ganga

Shi kansa Turanci da ake ganin kamar yaren wadansu kebabbu ne, bai samu ci gaba ba sai da ya ari kalmomi da yawa daga cikin yaren al’ummatan da Turawa suke hulda da su; domin Turawa, kamar Hausawa, ba zaune suke ba, a kwai su da yawo da kuma karbar sabon abu. Misali daga cikin al’ummatan da Turawa suka ari kalmominsu domin gina Turanci na jadawali na kasa.

Jadawali na 2: Are-Aren Cikin Turanci

Turkish Egypt Arab Indian
Mammoth Pharaoh Alcohol Bungalow
Turkey Gum Hazard Dam (n)
Vampire Ebony Cable
Coach Oasis Sugar Malaysian
Kiosk Ivory Racket Amok
Girl Ammonia Mattress Ketchup
Beer Embark Magazine Launch
Book Algebra Gong
King Alcove

Saboda haka ashe aro ba wani bakon abu ne a cikin dabi’ar Bahaushe, kuma tunda aron da yake yi yana tafiya da yadda ya samu kansa, dole a yarda Bahaushe na tafiya da zamani, ba wai bagidaje ne ba. Misali, cin abinci da hannun hagu da cokali mai yatsu, dabi’ar Banasare ce. Cin abinci da tsinkaye guda biyu dabi’ar Canis ce. Duk wadannan da kyar zaka raba su da wadannan dabi’un. Amma zaman Bahaushe a Hon Kon zai iya sa ya ari dabi’ar cin abinci da tsinkaye, domin yana ganin zai iya, ko kuma yana sha’awa. Wannan ba zai sa ya zama Canis ba, amma za a iya cewa ya bar tasa dabi’ar (ta cin abinci da hannu, domin ko cin abinci da cokali ma ba dabi’ar Bahaushe ba ne, don cokalin aro shi ya yi daga wajen Azbinawa), ya ari ta Canis, domin a wannan aron, babu yadda zai nasabanta shi da rayuwarsa. Amma kuma a wani misalin, babbar riga ba tufafin Bahaushe bane, amma yanzu babu Bahaushen da zai yarda babbar riga ba tasa ba ce saboda yadda ta dace da tsarin dabi’ar rayuwarsa.

Tada ko Gargajiya da Zamanancin Bahaushe

Tada, gargajiya, ko kuma customs and practices, tsare-tsaren rayuwar Bahaushe ne da ya gada kaka da kakanni. Da Musulunci ya zo, sai ya kawar da wadansu, kamar tsafi da bautar gumaka, da shan giya da zina, da sauransu, ya kuma kyale wadansu domin basu yi karo da addini ba, kamar tsare-tsaren haihuwa da sauran bukukuwan da suka hada da haihuwa. Duk da cewa rayuwa wacce aka gada shekara da shekaru, ba dole ne mutum ya yarda da ita ba, domin akwai ra’ayi a wajen inganta tada. Misali, matan Turawa basa wankan jego. Wannan sai matan Hausawa. Amma shi ma yanayi ne da kuma ra’ayi. Bahaushiyar da ke zaune a Ingila ba zata yi wankan jego ba, domin yin haka zai keta ka’idar kiwon lafiyar dan Adam a kasar. Saboda haka idan wannan Bahaushiyar ta ce ba za ta yi wankan jego ba, ba wai ta yar da tadar ta bane, kawai yanayin zamanta ba zai kyale ta ta ci gaba da wannan tadar bane. Sannan wadansu matan basu da karfin halin da zasu dinga shekawa kansu ruwan zafi, ko saboda rashin lafiya ba zasu iya wannan wankan jegon ba. Wannan ba zai fitar da su daga rukunin Hausawa ba, domin haka abin ya dauro musu.

Duk da haka, wadannan tadodin suma an yi musu kwaskwarima, tare da hadowa da na wadansu al’ummatan, a shigar da su cikin Hausa. Misali, matar da ta yi haihuwar fari tana zuwa gidansu ta ci gaba da wankan jego daga ranar suna ne. Amma Hausawa sun ari tadar Fulani ta wannan fannin na tafiya gida goyon ciki daga ciki na wata bakwai.

Yin haka ya yi daidai, domin abin duk za a ce kana da zabi a kai, ko dabi’a, ko tada, to kana da hakkin juya shi ta yadda zaka iya aiwatar da shi ta yadda kake so, ko da ya batar da surarsa ta ainihi, to dalilin yinsa na nan. Misali, kaurin jego na daga cikin tadodin Hausawa. A surarsa ta farko da kafuwan sa ake yi, a yi ganda, sannan a hada da kunun kanwa a aikawa makwabta da abokan arziki. Da tafiya ta yi tafiya, sai wannan ya canza, a ka koma yi da naman karamar dabba, daga baya a ka koma yi dabino da kuma alewa. Sigar ta canza, amma makasudin, ko kuma manufar yin kaurin, bata canza ba.

Saboda haka in akwai wata tada ta ta sabawa Musulunci, to wannan bai kamata a daukakata ba. In kuwa bata sabawa Musulunci ba, to in dai zata amfana jama’a ta ko samar da aiki, ko karfafa zumunci, a iya daukakata, ko da an canza mata siga. A wannan, tadodin Bahaushe sun hada da tsare-tsaren rayuwarsa daga haihuwa zuwa aure, zuwa mutuwa. Kowacce kabila a duniya tana da abin da ta tanada na sarrafa wadannan nau’o’in na rayuwa.

Al’ada da Hausanci

Saboda haka da yawa daga cikin karon da a ke yi na ma’anar al’ada, ana nufin ko dabi’a, ko kuma tada. Da yawa daga masu nazarin rayuwar Bahaushe suna musayan ma’anar al’ada da kuma tada ko kuma dabi’a. Domin tunatarwa, na fassara al’ada a matsayin sindarin mu’amalar mutum, ko kuma mores and mindsets, da Turanci.

Wannan sindarin mu’amalar shi kan fitar da abin da za kira mutumin kirki, wanda kuma halayyace, ko kuma tarbiyya. A takaice, al’ada hali ne, ba sarrafi ba. Wannan ma’aunin ya fito daga hannun masana da suka nazarci rayuwar Bahause a zamanin da ake ganin babu yawan cudanya tsakanin Hausawa da wadansu hanyoyin sadarwa da za ce sun zama rariyar daukan wadannan halayen. Kuma tun kafin zuwan Musulunci, Hausawa na da wadannan halayen – da Musulunci ya zo, ya inganta su ne.

A binciken da manazarta suka yi, an gano cewa al’adar Bahause, a bisa wannan ma’aunin na ma’anar al’ada, na tattare a sinadaran mu’ala guda 21. Wadannan sun hada da:

Hausanci Fulatanci (Pulaaku)

1. Adalci 1. Ne'ddaku (Jan Aji)
2. Amana 2. Daraja
3. Dattako 3. Ardungal (Shugabanci)
4. Gaskiya 4. Marugo Na'i (Mallakar Shanu)
5. Hakuri 5. Endam (Kirki)
6. Hankali
7. Hikima
8. Juriya da jarumta
9. Kama sana’a
11. Kawaici
12. Kunya/Kara
13. Ladabi
14. Mua’amala
15. Mutumci
16. Rashin tsegumi
17. Rikon addini
18. Zumunta

Wadannan ba sune kadai ba. Dole za a iya samun wadansu sinadiran; amma dai a wadannan masana kamar su Kirk-Greene[10] da kuma Zarruk[11] suka gina sinadarin al’adar Bahaushe da kuma Bafillace, tunda yanzu an zama daya. Saboda da haka a wannan ma’auni na su, al’adar Bahaushe ita ce al’adar mutumin kirki a cikin al’ummar Hausawa. Takan yiwu sauran kabilun suma suna da ire-iren wadannan, amma abin da ya fi damun mu a nan, shine yadda rayuwar Hausawa take, domin da mutum ya yi abu zaka ji an kwabe shi ana cewa, “haba, sai kace ba Bahaushe ba?” Wannan ya nuna ashe akwai ma’aunin Hausanci, ba wai kawai a tada ko dabi’a ba.

In an lura duk wadannan sinadirayen sun dogara ne a zuciyar mutum, amma suna amfani da dabi’a domin a aiwatar da su – shi yasa a ke ganin dabi’a da al’ada kamar daya ne. Misali, mutumci ne mutum ya sa tufafi masu kyau. Amma a dabi’ance, zai iya sa tufafin da suka dace da yadda ya sami kansa. Amma kuma ko da a haka ne, saka tufafin zai dogara ga shekaranusa – wanda kuma an jawo dattaku ciki. Misali, idan mutum dan shekara 50 mai sha’awar kallon wasan kwallon kafa, ya saka wandon jins da T-shat ta wani dan bal, da kuma hula hana-sallah, to gani za a yi ya karya dokokin al’adar Bahause ta hanyar zubar da mutumcinsa, da kuma rashin nuna dattaku, duk da cewa babu wata illa ga kayan da ya sa, domin sun kare tsiracinsa, sun dace da sha’awarsa ta kallon bal, kuma duk da cewa a wata alkaryar ta Musulumi (misali, Masar), za a iya samun takwararsa ya saka wadannan kayan, kuma ya samu karbuwa.

Saboda haka al’adar Bahaushe ba wai gine-ginen da ko na zamani ba ne. Ba wai iya dafa wani abincin da ko na yanzu ba ne; ba kuma saka tufafin da ko na yanzu bane. Al’adar Bahaushe yanayin hali ne wanda ya fitar da shi dabam da sauran jama’a, ya zama duk inda yake yana wakilitar duk wani mutum da za a kira Bahaushe, kuma ta wani fannin, ko da Bamaguje ne. Misali, Bahaushen da ke zaune a Ingila ba dole ne ya sa manyan kaya irin wadanda zai sa a kasar Hausa ba. Amma yana da halayyar Bahaushen da komai jimawa a kasar da yayi, za a san lallai Bahaushe ne. Saboda haka don bai sa manyan kaya ba, wannan halin zaman wurin ne ya kama haka, amma sinadarin halayensa na Bahaushe suna tare da shi, sai dai ya bijire musu, ko kuma ya dakatar da su saboda wadansu dalilai.

Bari in ba da misalina na karshe wanda yake da dangantaka da dalilin taruwarmu a yau. Babu abin da aka fi yawan sakashi a cikin kwandon da ba nasa ba kamar rawa da waka. Kusan duk mai yin magana a kan rawa da waka zaka ji ya ce ai al’adar Bahaushe ce. Ina da ja a nan. Rawa da waka ba al’adar Bahaushe ba ce, domin ba ta zama tilas a kan kowanne Bahaushe ba, sabanin halayyar al’ada, wadanda suka wajaba a kan duk wanda ke da ikirarin shi Bahaushe ne.

Idan aka bi ma’aunin gwajin al’ada, to tabbas rawa da waka ba al’dar Bahaushe bane. Hasali ma dai yinsu na runa kusan rashin duk jerin ayoyin tarbiyyar da aka gina al’adar Bahaushe da su. Rawa da waka sana’a ne, saboda haka tadodi ne. Kuma ko a sana’ance, suna da da muhallinsu; ta wani fannin ma gadonsu ake yi, ba shigege ba. Bugu da kari a rayuwar Bahaushe, mawaka da makada an dauke su a matsayin maroka. Su kansu mawakan, kamar Sani Dan Indo, suna nuna cewa basa fatan ‘ya’yansu su gaje su a wannan sana’ar ta su, duk da sun yi kudi, kuma sun yi tashe a cikinta.[12] Ganin haka ne yasa a ke nisanta al’adar Bahaushe ta tarbiyya, da rawa da waka.[13]

A wannan ruwayar, rawa da waka ba su da matsayin rayuwar yau da kullum, kamar al’ada, saboda basu zama dole ba. Akwai rayuwar da za a iya yi babu rawa da waka, kuma a zauna lafiya, domin wani ma baya sonsu ko kadan. Amma babu yadda za a yi rayuwa babu, misali, ladabi, dattaku, karamci, amana, da sauransu. Ashe saboda haka rawa da waka tunda basu zama tilas a rayuwar Bahaushe ba, ba za a kirasu al’adar Bahaushe ba.

Saboda haka in ka nuna mutum ya shiga bala’i, sai ya bigire da rawa da waka, to wannan ya keta al’adar Bahaushe, domin a al’adance, zai yi tawakkali ne. Haka kuma komai farin cikin da zai samu ga mutum, ba za kaga yaje wajen mahaifiyarsa yana yi mata rawa da waka ba; zai durkusa ne ya sanar da ita abin da rayuwarsa ke ciki, in har ta kai sai ya fada mata. Kuma komai soyayyar da mutum yake yiwa matarsa, babu yadda zaka ce al’adar Bahaushe ce ya dinga rera mata waka, ko don wa’azi ko don nishadi. Ita kanta in ya fara ma zata dauka ko ya haukace ne!

Amma a tadance, lokacin biki, suna ko wani taro, in mutum yana so, zai iya tara makada da mawaka a cashe har gari ya waye. Wannan shi ya so. Amma a sigar zaman yau da kullum, ko su kansu da sana’arsu ce rawa da waka ba haka suke yinta ba, domin su ma ba al’adarsu ba ce.

Saboda haka daukaka al’adar Bahaushe, daukaka addinin Musulunci ne, domin al’adar Bahaushe gaba dayanta na cikin Musulunci.

Wakilcin Bahaushe a Hanyoyin Sadarwa na Zamani

Bari in rufe wannan dan gajeren jawabin nawa da waigen jigon wannan taron – wakilincin al’adun Hausawa da addini a Finafinan Hausa, ko da yake masana zasu yi magana a kan wannan nan ba da dadewa ba.

Fim wata hanya ce ta haskaka al’umma a da ko kuma a yanzu. Babban makasudin yin fim shine jawo hankalin jama’a ga wadansu abubuwa da ke gudana a rayuwar zahiri, da yin kalubale ga dorewar wadannan abubuwan. A takaice, idan mutum ya ce zai yi fim, yana da niyya ya wayar da kan jama ta yadda zai isar a sakonsa ta hanyar jawo hankalinsu ga lura da muhimancin sakonninsa. Wannan shine manufar yin fim daga wadanda suka kirkiro sana’ar, ba wai manufar fim daga yadda ‘yan sana’ar na kasar Hausa suka dauka ba – domin sau da yawa a cikin hira da ake yi da ‘yan san’ar finafinan Hausa sun ce ba don fadakarwa suke yin fim ba, sai don neman kudi.[14]

Wannan babu aibu, domin in dai za a bi inganttacciyar hanya a nemi kudi, yana da kyau. Amma babban sabani a nan shi ne makasudin neman kudin. Rini, misali, shi ma sana’a ce, kamar fim. Amma babu marinin da zai ce da kai yana rini ne domin ya wakilci Hausawa. Haka ma duk makeri, ko manomi, ko mai sayar da yaduka, da sauransu. Inda fim ya bambanta, kuma a ka saka ido a kai, shine ikirarin wakilcin rayuwar wadansu mutane da a ke yi ta hanyarsa. Idan da fim bai zamanto hanyar wakiltar Hausawa ba ne, to da babu wanda zai damu da sana’ar, kamar yadda a yanzu ba zaka taba jin an yi wata bita a kan sayar da tsire ba!

Tari da yawa in ana takaddama tsakanin jama’ar gari, manazarta da ‘yan fim, kowa maganar wakilcin al’adar Hausawa yake yi. Abin da ya kawo wannan kuwa saboda kowa na fassara al’ada yadda ya fahimce ta. Ina fata daga yau an sami wani abin kalubale a kan rabe-raben da ke tsakanin dabi’a, tada, da kuma al’ada.

Babban abin da ya jawo dalilin damuwa da wakilcin Bahaushe a sigar finafinan ba wani abu bane illa ganin cewa da harshen Hausa a ke wadannan finafinan. Yin amfani da harshen Hausa ya nunawa mai kallo cewa rayuwar Hausawa a ke haskakawa, kuma a ke wakilta. Ganin haka ya sa dole masu harshen su nuna damuwarsu in su a ganinsu ba a wakilce su daidai a wani fim ba. Tari da yawa kalubalen ba ya ga dabi’a, ko canja sigar tada; yana ga al’ada, wanda ya shafi tarbiyya. Ba za a samu ci gaba ba dole sai an zauna an yarda da ma’anar al’ada ta yadda kowa zai gamsu. Abin mamakin shine sauran al’ummatan da ke haskaka rayuwarsu ta hanyar fim, kamar Yarabawa da Ibo, basu da wannan takaddarmar; hasali ma yaba musu a ke yi a kan yadda kullum a finafinansu suke daukaka tadodinsu da al’adunsu.

Kamar yadda na ce, kalubalen ba ya ga canjin dabi’a ko tada. Idan mutum ya zauna a tebur ya ci abinci, ba wai ya bar rayuwar Bahaushe bane, shi kansa a zauna a gini mai kusurwa hudu ba na Bahaushe bane, ara ya yi daga wajen Larabawa. Idan Bahaushe ya ci cek a fim ba wai ya nuna Turanci ba ne, ai yana da gireba, wacce ita ma cek ce, amma daga wajen Larabawa ya aro, sai dai kawai a ce yin amfani da girebar ya fi a yi amfani da cek din, domin a inganta ita girebar, tun ma ba ga wadanda basu santa ba.

Idan an ce babban mutum a fim bai sa babbar riga ba, ai wannan ba aibu bane, ita kanta babbar rigar ba ta Bauhaushe ba ce, aro ta a ka yi daga wajen mutanen kasar da yanzu a ke kira Western Sahara (wani yanayi na Buzaye). Idan an ce Bahaushe na cin abinci da cokali, wannan ba wani abu bane; da da hannu yake cin abinci, da ya samu cokali daga wajen Azbinawa ya ga ya fi tsabta ya ci abinsa da wannan cokalin. Kazalika nuna mutane a manyan motoci ba wai nuna bijirewar Bahaushe bane – da jaki da mota duk daya ne a rayuwar Bahaushe domin duk abubuwar hawa ne da aka aro su, amfani da kowanne ya danganta ga tatttalin arzikin mutum.

Duk wadannan ba sune tushen kalubalen wakilcin al’adar Bahaushe ba. Bari mu ga wadansu misalan keta wakilcin al’adar Bahaushe bisa wannan ma’aunin. Misali, mutum ya mari sarikinsa. A wannan babu ladabi, biyayya, kara, karamci, dattaku, ko da kuwa shi sirikin shi ya jawo a mare shi. Keta al’ada ne ‘ya ta ce da mahaifinta, “kayi kukan jini ma”, saboda an nuna rashin ladabi. Keta al’ada ne a nuna mutum da iyayensa suna zaune duk a kujera, sabanin shi ya zauna a kasa, domin in ya yi sahu da su ba a lokacin sallah ba, to ya nuna rashin ladabin Bahaushe. Idan a ka nuna basarake da rawaninsa yana rawa a cikin mata, wannan ya keta al’adar Bahaushe, domin ya nuna wannan basaraken ya zubar da mutuncinsa, ko da yana haka a cikin gidansa tsakanin shi da matansa, wannan ba haka yake a cikin jama’ar da sarautarsa ke wakilta ba.

A wannan babu maganar wani zamani, ci gaba, rage duhun kai na Bahaushe da sauransu domin wai a canja al’adar Bahaushe a zamanantar da shi. Rashin nuna kyakkyawar tarbiyar basa daga cikin al’adar Bahaushe. Za a iya nuna rashin al’ada a gidan kara (wanda shine orijina na Bahaushe), sannan kuma a nuna tsabagen al’ada a katafaren gidan zamani. Saboda haka keta al’ada ko kuma nuna al’ada bai tsaya ga gine-gine, abinci, tufafi, motoci, kayan zamani da sauransu ba. Inganta sinadarin mu’amala na tarbiyya shine al’ada. In a fim a inganta wadannan, to an wakili Hausa da Musulunci. In kuwa ba a yi ta, to a wakilci Hausa da Musulunci ba. A wannan ne babban kalubalen ke gaban mu – yadda za a kiyaye al’adun da muke tinkaho da su a zamanance.

[1] H.A.S. Johnson, The Fulani Empire of Sokoto, London , 1967, p. 4-6. Sannan kuma a duba Abdullahi Mahdi, The Hausa Factor in West African History. ABU Press, 1978.

[2] Abdullahi Smith, “Some consideration relating to the formation of States in Hausa-land”. Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria , Vol V No 1, December 1970, p. 331.

[3] G.R. Niven, A Short History of Nigeria . Longman , Nigeria , 1971, p. 39.

[4] H. R. Palmer, Sudanese Memoirs, London , Frank Cass, 1928, p. 95.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Neil S. Skinner, “The Origin of the name Hausa”, Africa , 1968,Vol XXXVII, No 3, p. 256.

[7] Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, Dangantakar Al’ada da Addini: Tasirin Musulunci Kan Rayuwar Hausawa Ta Gargajya. M.A. Thesis, Department of Nigerian Languages, April 1982, p. 94.

[8] Aliyu Abubakar, Al Thakafatul Arabiyyati Fi Naijiriya: Min Aam 1750 ilaa 1960. Arabic Literature in Nigeria : From 1750 to 1960. PhD thesis, ABU Zaria, 1972. pp 371-469; wanda a ka sarrafa a mtsayin Aliyu Abubakar, The Arabic Culture in Nigeria, Beirut, Lebanon, AbdulHafiz Al-Bassid, 1972.

[9] Domin karin bayani, a duba Muhammad Sani Ibrahim, “Are-aren kalmomi cikin Hausa”, in Yahaya, I.Y. and Rufa’i, A. (eds) Studies in Hausa Language, Literature and Culture, The First Hausa International Conference. Center for the Study of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University , Kano , 1978, pp 94-116; Neil Skinner, “Loans in Hausa and Pre-Hausa: Some Etymologies” Berliner Afrikanistische Vortrage 21 (1980) 169-202; Joseph Greenberg, “Linguistic Evidence for the Influence of Kanuri on the Hausa”, Journal of African History 1:2 (1960).

[10] Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. Mutumin Kirki: The Concept of the Good Man in Hausa. The Third Annual Hans Wolff Memorial Lecture, prepared by the African Studies Program, Indian university, Bloomington, Indiana, 1974. The lecture itself was delivered on April 11 1973.

[11] Habib Alhassan, Usman Ibrahim Musa, Rabi’u Mohammed Zarruk, Zaman Hausawa. Kano , Islamic Publications Bureau, 1982, 1988.

[12] Duba hira da a ka yi da Sani Dan Indo, mai kidan kuntigi, a cikin, Annur, Vol 1, August 2001, shafi na 48.

[13] Don samun karin bayani a kan matsayin maroka a kasar Hausa kafin ‘yanci daga mulkin mallaka na Turawan Ingila, a dubi makalar M.G. Smith, “The Social Functions and Meaning of hausa Praise-Singing”, a Africa , Vol 27, 1957, shafuka na 26-44.

[14] Misali, a dubi hirar da a ka yi da Najja’atu Abubakar, ‘yar jihar Kogi, tauraruwar fim din Zabari, a mujallar FIM, Afrilu, 2005, shafi na 17, “ Neman kudi na zo, ba fadakarwa ba”.

Saturday, 22 May 2010

Sambo: The New Northern Leader

Sambo: The New Northern Leader
Written by Ibrahim Sheme
Published in LEADERSHIP
Friday, 21 May 2010

In his congratulatory message to Alhaji Mohammed Namadi Sambo, Chief Orji Uzor Kalu advised the new vice-president to henceforth regard himself as a national leader and not somebody from this or that part of the country. “Vice-president Sambo should see the whole country as his constitiuency. This is an entirely different ball game,” the former governor of Abia State argued in an interview with LEADERSHIP published Thursday.

Well, it is indeed a different ball game. Sambo is no longer the governor of Kaduna State. His sudden elevation has catapulted him to the centre, at once making him the number two citizen of this country. It is henceforth a different theatre, and the dramatis personae are different. As deputy to the president, he has automatically become a few metres taller than his former colleagues, the state governors who, it should be pointed out, scarcely played a role in making him what he is today. It was his predecessor in Kaduna State, Senator Ahmed Mohammed Makarfi, they had worked hard to get into the coveted office. Sambo is entirely the making of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan and, of course, the almighty God.

Kalu has also advised Sambo to forget about the politics that nearly denied him the vice-presidency. He said, “Whatever transpired on his way to Aso Villa is past tense. For now, he is neither from Kaduna nor from the North-West.”

The truth, however, is that it would be foolhardy for the vice-president to disregard where he comes from. In fact, his political future rests squarely on his capacity to work in the centre while minding the periphery. Being the vice-president, he is expected to help Jonathan work for the whole of Nigeria, but his primary constituency, this time the whole North and not just a section of it, is equally important. Besides, there are great benefits to derive from being a regional leader in present-day Nigeria.

Clearly, providence has thrust the weight of Northern leadership on his shoulders. This section of the country will regard him as its political head from now till the next general elections when a new crop of leaders will be had. And it is not the first time such happened. Way back in 1999 when Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo was made president, he picked the newly elected governor of Adamawa State, Alhaji Atiku Abubakar, as his deputy. That single act transformed Atiku into the North’s leader overnight. At a grand reception organised for him in Kaduna to commemorate the development, not everyone doubted his elevation as the region’s new leader. While the romance with Obasanjo lasted, Atiku enjoyed a firm grip on the various sectors of Northern leadership. State governors, especially those of the PDP stock, rallied round him.

Atiku only began to lose grip when his romance with Obasanjo soured. His ambition to succeed the latter as president was thwarted by Obasanjo, who wanted to succeed himself instead. Their bitter rivalry, culminating into the loss of the third term bid, is one of the tantalising stories in the history of politics in Nigeria.

Atiku has since made frantic attempts to regain his leadership role in the region – from floating an opposition party to his recent bid to return to his former party, the PDP. Regrettably, just when the Action Congress looked set to present a real challenge to the ruling party, Atiku jumped ship, abandoned his captainship of the AC and made a hilarious move to rejoin the PDP, a move that was resisted and scuttled by the party’s leaders in his home state with the active connivance of the party’s national leadership. As things stand, Atiku is now in political wilderness, oscillating between being an opposition figure and someone trying to romance those in power. His naked quest for power is repugnant to many an observer; it is doubtful if he will ever regain his former hold on power, both at the regional and national levels.

Sambo’s ascension appears to have sealed Atiku’s fate. The ongoing drama is like a rewind to the events of 1999, with a few differences. Once again we have a president from the South and a VP from the North. We are coasting towards another general election. Sambo is expected to remain loyal to Jonathan as they plot to run together in 2011 after the PDP might have jettisoned its zoning formula in order to accommodate Jonathan’s yet-to-be-divulged ambition. While this is going on, Sambo will be consolidating his position as the leader of the North in the emerging arrangement. As he does so, Atiku, who once played that role, would become increasingly isolated, unless he helps build a formidable opposition to the PDP. And it looks like it is too late for him to do that between now and the next elections, especially with his flippant, nay chameleonic, histrionics in opposition activities.

I do not see the PDP not giving its all to both Jonathan and Sambo as the elections loom closer. Besides, the party is being rebuilt, with a redoubtable Prince Vincent Ogbulafor out in the cold and a pro-Jonathan national chairman coming on board. It is quite reasonable to expect the whole National Working Committee of the party to be changed very soon, giving way to apparatchiks that are willing to do the president’s bidding. Now with this renewal of the party leadership, both Jonathan and Sambo would become stronger leaders, much stronger than we have seen since 2007. At least, none of them suffers from any debilitating illness that would limit their capacity for action.

Reading the lips of Jonathan lately, one can safely say that the dice has already been cast. During the swearing-in of Sambo on Wednesday, the president took time to emphasise that he and Sambo were going to have a very chummy relationship. “The stories of crisis between the president and vice-president will not arise,” he promised. “I will make sure that we work together as a team.” Sambo himself said quite the same. By this, they were reminding us about the bitter relationship between President Obasanjo and Vice-president Atiku. And they were telling us that theirs was going to be different. Jonathan says that he knew the areas of disagreement that made governance difficult in our recent past. So we should expect to see a new era in which the two most powerful men in the country will not be fighting each other.

Jonathan says he wants Sambo to cooperate fully with him, and he will do the same for him. Scratch my back, I will scratch yours. If that plan works, we expect both to reap its dividends. Jonathan will hope to get elected next year in order to rule the country for another four years. And if everything goes according to plan, he may be forced by circumstances not to run again, and then he will scratch Sambo’s back. That means Sambo, unless he bungles it the way Atiku did, and unless the opposition elements erect a wall more formidable than the one we are seeing, is on the road to becoming Nigeria’s future president. And assuming that Jonathan decides not to run next year, as many want him to do, the PDP can present only one candidate – Namadi Sambo. This explains the recent frenzy over who Jonathan should nominate as vice-president. And that is certainly the biggest dividend of being the leader of a region as vast as the North.

Tuesday, 4 May 2010

Hajiya Bilkisu S. Ahmed Funtua - An Interview

I had this interview with one of the leading Hausa novelists, Bilkisu Salisu Ahmed Funtua (a.k.a. Anty Bilki), many years ago when I was working at the New Nigerian Newspapers in Kaduna. I interviewed her at her home in Funtua, Katsina State, in the Hausa language and translated it for the benefit of a wider audience. The interview was published in the New Nigerian Weekly at that time. I have just fished out of my archive.

NNW: One would like to know when you began to write and why.

Bilkisu: I started in 1983 with the publication of the novel Allura Cikin Ruwa (A Needle in the Water), though was not the first book I wrote, Wa Ya San Gobe? (Who Knows the Future?) was my first novel, but the other one was published earlier due to certain problems.

NNW: In what volumes is "Allura"?

Bilkisu: It is in three volumes - books one to three.

NNW: So, what motivated you to become a writer?

Bilkisu: There were many reasons: I think I was motivated by three main reasons, all of them based on my feelings for the North. The first is the way girls in the North are having their rights denied. You find a brilliant girl with the urge to further her education but as soon as she gets married the husband prevents her from going further. I know that marriage can not be a hindrance to a woman wanting to further her education. In this regard, Southerners are more progressive than us. As such, I realized that through the medium of writing using the little talent God gave me, I could put into the heads of girls ideas-through entertainment and enlightenment-to appreciate the importance of education.

Secondly, you find that once a Hausa girl gets married even if it is one based on love without the imposition of he parents, the marriage eventually collapses. In the past when our own parents and grandparents got marred, it was difficult to find two or three divorcees in the community. Bu nowadays it would be a lie for one to say there is no divorcee in one's family; in the community there are divorcees a] over the place, you hardly distinguish between the unmarried ladies and the ax-married ones.

The main cause for this is lack of understanding an! awareness on the way to live in marriage. That's how our children are: they don't know how to live together as couples. It is possible that other tribes are more realistic than u in teaching their children perseverance and attitudes in staying with their husbands. We the Hausa parents are too shy to do that; only the educated or enlightened ones among us would sit down with their daughters and teach them the way to do things that would improve their marriage. Parent only try to teach by example, in a sort of insinuatory manner which the daughters may not understand.

As a result of marrying off unenlightened girls, they soon lose interest in the marriage. Also, the husband himself might not have grown up enlightened, so he is quick to anger an~ so says he would not go on with the marriage. And a crisis would ensue. That is despite the fact that and love each other, they are materially comfortable, but the marriage collapses.

Thirdly, there is the issue of forced marriage. There is the need for children to take the advice of their parents. It is no always that parents, aim to marry off their daughters to rich people; sometimes, a girl would choose the wrong person and a partner whom her parents might oppose, and the girl's position would harden. I had observed that when the (present crop of) novelists started writing, they seemed to indicate that a marriage based on soyayya (love) is compulsory, the so-called auren dole (forced marriage), which your parents forced you into, would never work.

In my understanding, I observed that our own parents got married under such circumstance whereby a girl would not have ever met the prospective husband before the union was consummated; she would see him only after she had been taken to his house. It's their parents that would arrange everything, and it worked. Those were my three reasons for wanting to write, with the hope that girls in the North could progress in terms of marriage and education.

NNW: Did you read other people's books in order to pick up styles and other insight?

Bilkisu: I have been interested in reading quite a lot. I love to read more than you can imagine. But whenever I read the Hausa novels, before I began to write mine, I used to feel bad. I would begin to say only if so and so were was written or said, the story would have been more enlightening to people, instead of overemphasizing the romance aspect. I do not mean to say that I dislike the romance as I also incorporate it in my stories, but there is more enlightenment in my novels. There hadn't a novel I found impressive after reading it.

NNW: How many novels have you published so far?

Bilkisu: I've published nine so far.

NNW: Why are all these prose fiction? You don't seem to delve into drama or poetry.

Bilkisu: I have considered prose as the best medium of reaching out to women and men with my messages. Prose is the ideal way of teaching through entertainment.

NNW: I'd like you to respond to the charges critics make against contemporary Hausa novelists in general. For example, it is said that the novels are mere Western stereotypes, that they are based, on Indian movies without consideration to Hausa culture.

Bilkisu: If the critics are talking about me in particular, they are wrong. Other novelists may reflect those charges. Though I am not defending myself I know that all the books I wrote were not based on any film or Western life style. I write totally on Hausa way of life. However, I would like you to go and conduct an opinion poll on which novels the readers best like and the reason why they like them. I know they would first mention culture as a reason for liking them; there's a preponderance of local life style in a Hausa community, then we move on to the urban center. Therefore, the cultures I reflect in my novels are those of the Hausa man.

NNW: Let's be specific. Recently, a literary critic writing on the new Hausa writing in the Weekly Trust and cited you as one of her examples. She said that in "Sirrin Boye" (The Hidden Secret), when Asma'u is about to meet her father for the first time, having been begotten out of wedlock, she falls into the arms of Faruk, her fiancé, out of apprehension on the encounter. The critic says that's not a Hausa cultural trait, that Asma'u should have burst into tears or something like that. Secondly, in the same book, you are charged for allowing a woman to go to her former suitor's house when her husband sends her packing at midnight instead of going to stay with the neighbours until daybreak.

Bilkisu: No, that is all truly Hausa culture. There is nothing confusion and apprehension could not cause, either to a Hausa, a white man or an Indian. Asma'u could have even collapsed on the ground then and faint in front of Faruk. The girl has spent twenty years of her life without ever knowing that she has a father and look at the way the father himself comes. Then she, suddenly finds herself in an exotic place where she may not even be accepted. Hence her utter bewilderment. As such whatever anyone does in such a circumstance, especially since she has been considering Faruk as her elder brother is excusable.

Secondly, the critic mentioned the issue of Abu, the mother of Asma'u, who leaves her husband's house and goes to her former boyfriend's house. I think she is right in going to that house because whenever she goes to her father's house he used to beat her and chase her out. She had been going to take refuge in the houses of his friends without getting the necessary succor; they send her back. She therefore goes to her boyfriend's house in order to persuade him to elope together.

NNW: In Hausa culture, there may be other alternatives. Abu could have gone to her own relatives' houses no matter how far away. Didn't you consider that?

Bilkisu: Abu had done all that, without getting relief. She therefore goes to her boyfriend for relief as all her travails are due to her insistence on him.

NNW: You are also charged with encouraging the use of black magic in Sa'adatu Sa'ar Mata (Sa'adatu the Lucky Woman). When Sa'adatu and her suitor Junaid fall apart, she takes up the advice of her mother and her friends and goes to a seer who gives them a love potion. This purportedly helps in cementing the relationship eventually leading in which they beget children and live happily ever after. You seem to teach that what the malam does is scientifically and morally correct.

Bilkisu: Everybody knows there is the concept of istihara (giving God the choice', a prayerful divination through heavenly intervention) in Islam, isn't it? Asma'u believes in istihara. It is her parents and friends that advice on going to a boka (shaman). Now, it would be an illusion (for us) to assume that our parents and grandparents (the older generation) would not seek for the intervention of apothecaries; it's an age-old tradition.

My aim was to enlighten the younger generation about the superiority of istihara and prayers over the traditional method. I have only made comparisons and showed that it is difficult for children to reject their parents' insistence on soliciting for the intervention of Malams in private affairs. Opposing parents would hurt them, it's better to even pretend to obey them in that regard

Asma'u has obeyed her parents because they have suffered a lot before they could convince her to take that decision. Even in the Qur'an there is the concept of the efficacy of sorcery and the need for its prevention. Now, all the medicines I mentioned were used by Asma'u none was not used by the holy Prophet Muhammad: milk, honey, meat and dates. These are medicants that you are recommended to use even if you are healthy. They are the ones Sa'adatu uses, not the ones the apothecary gave her. It is Sa'adatu's co-wife who believes in black magic but who pays dearly for it and is eventually divorced.

NNW: As a writer, why did you delve into film production?

Bilkisu: I did so because of old folks non-literates, who would like to read the stories but cannot. I realized that through home videos l could render another great help. Whoever cannot read can watch the video.

Also these days men used to say to women, "Oh, why are you immersed in that book? The woman told her husband "Whatever change you see in me, like stopping visiting to many people, I learnt it from this book. Therefore, Aunty Bilki's book is (like) the Hadith (saying of Prophet Muhammad). The husband was so glad. Suddenly, one day (my film) Ki Yarda Da Ni arrived and he sat down and watched it. And he was so impressed that he and his wife came all the way from Bauchi to Funtua just to see me. At that time they had a problem of polygamy, which I often write about: (advising that) women should live with their co-wives; a co-wife is your sister in all respects, so don't get unnecessarily worked up. I preach that, and we've progressed (in enlightenment) a lot.

NNW: Does that mean you will produce more films?

Bilkisu: Yes. By God's grace all my books, whether I am alive or not - I have put it in my will, my relatives and children know it - will be filmed.

NNW: Do you envisage a time when you will retire from writing?

Bilkisu: As long as there are problems in the world, I will write till die or I am not well. Everyday one confronts one problem or the other which needs to be critically examined.

NNW: Where do you get your themes?

Bilkisu: Even though I am secluded I used to go out once in a while and receive. visitors. In fact this writing business has made it possible for me to know problems more than before. People always phone me, visitors come, in a day even if I receive a hundred visitors I don't see it as too many. Some bring along a piece of advise which I find to be another form of problem requiring creative attention.

NNW: Don't you feel mobbed by these visits?

Bilkisu: Honestly, I do. For instance yesterday I wasn't feeling well and my sisters had come to discuss the wedding we are having today (my sister's). But then so many visitors came over. I felt somehow disturbed by people. However, I realized that it was entirely my fault, for I was the one that attracted them to me, so I have nothing to do about it. In any case I love people, so I feel okay with them.

NNW: What is your relationship with other writers? Are you a member of any writers' association?

Bilkisu: I am not a member of any association but I relate well with my fellow writers. As of associations, my husband wouldn't tolerate my trips to meetings. Moreover, there are certain things that make it hard for me to be in a writers' associations.

NNW: Like what?

Bilkisu: For example the (critics') idea that I transform foreign movies into book annoys me. If one reads my book dispassionately one would see that the story realistic and not copied from films. One would feel like one even knows the characters in real life. As such it's the Hausa culture that I write about. I am not happy that writers pick up stories from films and make them theirs. Our cultures are different.

NNW: What do you feel can become the future of the contemporary Hausa novel?

Bilkisu: We are developing. At the moment, people learn lesson from the stories.

NNW: Do you, on your own, react to criticism in order to enlighten your readers on your motives?

Bilkisu: It is only God that can satisfy people. Each reader has a different way of seeing things. Look at my intention for writing (about the character) Asma'u: to show that a good child could be begotten through fornication; God knows we shouldn't throw such a child away, because no one surpasses anyone in the eyes of God except those that tear Him most. Asma'u was begotten through bad way but God made her very devoted to God, very modest. And her mother, it is extremism in religious and cultural views that forced her to go astray. In my view, people can learn from this.

NNW: What type of problems did face in the early days of your writing?

Bilkisu: Well, they were mainly those of lack of funds; one is a secluded house-wife with no helper in terms of who would go out and pursue the publishing. But I've got a husband who is deeply interested in seeing that I was published, so he helped with the funds to the best of his ability.

NNW: What advice do you have for upcoming, unpublished writers?

Bilkisu: My advice is to write what readers can pick moral lesson' from, not things that can teach only immorality especially those transforming films into their books. How could you pick Indian culture and bring it here without attracting negative attention? For instance, there was one writer who wrote about a girl who fell into a well to protest a marriage she was being forced into by her parents. I don't think this is a good way of teaching morals; there are other ways that that girl could show her protest: (And) if it is her destiny to marry the man, she would marry him. Another writer told the story of a girl who, because of her infatuation to a boy, put poison in her grandmother's food who ate it and died, just because she wanted to marry the boy. Why should you commit murder in order to marry someone? This is a bad moral which shouldn't be put in a literary work. In my view, such stories shouldn't be told or written.

As for me, anyone that says there no local culture in my books hasn't really lead them or hasn't understood them. I really give our culture priority. I also give priority to our religion; in fact, I was the first writer to be reproducing useful prayers and infusing them into my stories to the extent that people ask if they are genuine. Any of my female characters that finds herself in a crisis would be found praying.

NNW: Yes, some critics see positive morals in your stories. For example, in Sirrin Boye, Asma'u, Zubaida and Bilkisu, who are female, are doctors; in Sa'adatu Sa'ar Mata, Sa'adatu is a journalist educated in England, and in Wa Ya San Gobe? Fatima is a school teacher who eventually becomes a federal minister of education. These show that you encourage female education.

Bilkisu: That is right. Fatima is from a very poor background but grew to that level.

NNW: Hajiya, thank you very much.

Bilkisu: You are welcome.